Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 14) Show all publications
Shadram, F., Bhattacharjee, S., Lidelöw, S., Mukkavaara, J. & Olofsson, T. (2020). Exploring the trade-off in life cycle energy of building retrofit through optimization. Applied Energy, 269, Article ID 115083.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the trade-off in life cycle energy of building retrofit through optimization
Show others...
2020 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 269, article id 115083Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Building retrofit is considered as a vital step to achieve energy and climate goals in both Europe and Sweden. Nevertheless, retrofitting solutions based merely on reducing operational energy use can increase embodied energy use, mainly due to altering the existing trade-off between the two. Considering this trade-off is vitally important, especially for retrofitting buildings located in cold climate regions, as reduction of operational energy use to meet standards of energy-efficient buildings may require a deep retrofitting that can considerably increase the embodied energy and thus be unfavorable from a Life Cycle Energy (LCE) perspective. This article presents a case study in which multi-objective optimization was used to explore the impact of a wide range of retrofitting measures on the aforementioned trade-off for a building in Sweden located in a subarctic climatic zone. The studied building was a typical 1980s multi-family residence. The goal was to explore and compare the optimal retrofitting solution(s) for the building, aiming to achieve Swedish energy-efficient building standards (i.e. new-build and near-zero energy standards). The results of the optimization indicated that (1) use of additional insulation in walls and roof, (2) replacement of existing windows with more energy-efficient ones, and (3) change of traditional mechanical extract ventilation to heat recovery ventilation are the primary and optimal retrofitting measures to fulfill the new-build Swedish energy standard and achieve highest LCE savings. However, to fulfill more far-reaching operational energy savings, application of additional retrofitting measures was required, increasing the embodied energy use considerably and resulting in lower LCE savings compared to the optimal retrofitting solution that only reached the Swedish new-build energy standard. The LCE difference between the optimal retrofitting solutions that fulfilled the new-build standard and the strictest near-zero (passive house) standard was 1862 GJ, which is equivalent to almost four years of operational energy use for the original building. This indicates that there is a limit to the reduction of operational energy use when retrofitting existing buildings, beyond which additional reductions can considerably increase the embodied energy and thus be unfavorable in terms of LCE use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Building retrofit, Embodied energy, Life cycle energy, Multi-objective optimization, Operational energy, Retrofitting measures
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Management and Building Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78989 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2020.115083 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-05-26 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-05-26 Created: 2020-05-26 Last updated: 2020-05-26Bibliographically approved
Mukkavaara, J., Sandberg, M., Sandberg, K., Pousette, A. & Norén, J. (2020). Sustainability evaluation of timber dwellings in the north of Sweden based on environmental impact and optimization of energy and cost. Procedia Manufacturing, 44, 76-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainability evaluation of timber dwellings in the north of Sweden based on environmental impact and optimization of energy and cost
Show others...
2020 (English)In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 44, p. 76-83Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Identifying design variations that strike the balance between environmental, energy and cost can be aided using multi-objective optimization. From the resulting Pareto-solutions, selecting a single optimal solution remains a challenge. Thus, research is still needed to increase the practical use of optimization for architectural, engineering and construction (AEC) practitioners. This paper presents the use of an optimization approach where the results and an environmental assessment are discussed with AEC practitioners. The method was tested in two case studies: a prestige tourist cottage and a multifamily residential building. Different superstructures, insulation materials and windows were varied for the cottage’s envelope whilst evaluating life-cycle energy and cost. In addition, the environmental impact in terms of CO2 emissions was evaluated for the initial and optimal design suggestions for the two different superstructures. For the residential building, the insulation material thickness and the windows were varied for its evaluation of life-cycle energy and cost. For the cottage, a report was written and then read by the practitioners and used as a base for future decisions. For the residential building, the results were presented orally for the practitioners. In both cases, it was possible to communicate the overarching results of the optimizations through visual plots, although future research should find ways to also explain the detailed results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Life-cycle energy, life-cycle cost, life-cycle assessment, genetic algorithm, building information modelling, practitioner accessibility
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Construction Management and Building Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78774 (URN)10.1016/j.promfg.2020.02.207 (DOI)
Note

Godkänd;2020;Nivå 0;2020-05-05 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-05-05 Created: 2020-05-05 Last updated: 2020-05-05Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, H., Sandberg, M., Mukkavaara, J., Jansson, G. & Stehn, L. (2019). Assessing Digital Information Management Between Design and Production in Industrialised House-Building: A Case Study. In: 2019 Proceedings of the 36th ISARC, Banff, Alberta, Canada: . Paper presented at 36th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, Banff, May 21-24, 2019 (pp. 340-347).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing Digital Information Management Between Design and Production in Industrialised House-Building: A Case Study
Show others...
2019 (English)In: 2019 Proceedings of the 36th ISARC, Banff, Alberta, Canada, 2019, p. 340-347Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Managing digital information in construction is commonly described through Building Information Modelling (BIM), which advocates seamless chains of information, increased coordination between different actors and a life-cycle perspective on information management. However, low adoption outside the design phase entails that handling information in production is in many cases manual and paper-based, which increases vulnerability for upstream errors materialising downstream in production. Furthermore, issues with interoperability surround many areas when managing digital information. For industrialised house-builders, the transmitter and receiver of information are in many cases integrated within the same company or based on long-term collaboration. This affects their ability to manage information and utilise design information, which implies that their strategy for digital information management (DIM) might benefit from being addressed differently compared to more traditional BIM-based approaches. In this paper, we describe and discuss an implemented DIM-solution at an industrialised house-builder in order to address the benefits and challenges with DIM when managing information from design to production. The results imply that in order for several different functions within the company to reap benefits, a customised DIM-solution adapted after the company’s specific needs is a well-suited approach forward to avoid sacrificing functionality when utilising design information.

Keywords
Digital Information Management; Industrialised house-building; Information utilisation; Tailored interoperability; Building Information Modelling
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Management and Building Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76276 (URN)10.22260/ISARC2019/0046 (DOI)
Conference
36th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction, Banff, May 21-24, 2019
Available from: 2019-10-08 Created: 2019-10-08 Last updated: 2019-10-08
Shadram, F. & Mukkavaara, J. (2019). Exploring the effects of several energy efficiency measures on the embodied/operational energy trade-off: a case study of Swedish residential buildings. Energy and Buildings, 183, 283-296
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the effects of several energy efficiency measures on the embodied/operational energy trade-off: a case study of Swedish residential buildings
2019 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Energy and Buildings, Vol. 183, p. 283-296Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The building design process is crucial in efforts to implement energy-efficient practices by adopting Energy Efficiency Measures (EEMs). However, design choices based solely on reducing operational energy use can significantly increase a building's embodied energy and Life Cycle Energy (LCE) use, because there is a trade-off between embodied and operational energy. This article presents a case study in which multi-objective optimization was used to explore the effects of various EEMs on the aforementioned trade-off. Optimal solution(s) for six different building shapes (rectangular, H-, U-, l-, T- and cross-shaped) based on two sets of EEMs were investigated and compared. The first set of EEMs consisted of EEMs that can be implemented or modified during the early design phase, such as the building's shape, orientation, Window to Wall Ratio (WWR), and constituent materials. The second set comprised EEMs that can be implemented later in the design phase (i.e. EEMs relating to the constituent materials). The LCE reductions achieved by finding optimal solutions for EEMs in the first set (ranged from 2175.2 to 3803.8 GJ) were significantly (over 5 times) higher than those achieved for the second set (ranged from 418.6 to 625.6 GJ) for all building shapes. Moreover, LCE use for pre-optimization building designs varied significantly with building shape. However, after optimization, the differences in LCE use between the optimal solutions of different building shapes were modest. This means that designers and construction companies can select building shapes based on customer requirements, but also highlights the importance of using multi-objective optimization during early design process to identify optimal combinations of EEMs that minimize LCE use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Building shape, Embodied energy, Energy efficiency measures, Life cycle energy, Multi-objective optimization, Operational energy
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Management and Building Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71756 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2018.11.026 (DOI)000456760000022 ()2-s2.0-85056896979 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-11-29 (inah)

Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Sandberg, M., Mukkavaara, J., Shadram, F. & Olofsson, T. (2019). Multidisciplinary Optimization of Life-Cycle Energy and Cost Using a BIM-Based Master Model. Sustainability, 11(1), Article ID 286.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multidisciplinary Optimization of Life-Cycle Energy and Cost Using a BIM-Based Master Model
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 286Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Virtual design tools and methods can aid in creating decision bases, but it is a challenge to balance all the trade-offs between different disciplines in building design. Optimization methods are at hand, but the question is how to connect and coordinate the updating of the domain models of each discipline and centralize the product definition into one source instead of having several unconnected product definitions. Building information modelling (BIM) features the idea of centralizing the product definition to a BIM-model and creating interoperability between models from different domains and previous research reports on different applications in a number of fields within construction. Recent research features BIM-based optimization, but there is still a question of knowing how to design a BIM-based process using neutral file formats to enable multidisciplinary optimization of life-cycle energy and cost. This paper proposes a framework for neutral BIM-based multidisciplinary optimization. The framework consists of (1) a centralized master model, from which different discipline-specific domain models are generated and evaluated; and (2) an optimization algorithm controlling the optimization loop. Based on the proposed framework, a prototype was developed and used in a case study of a Swedish multifamily residential building to test the framework’s applicability in generating and optimizing multiple models based on the BIM-model. The prototype was developed to enhance the building’s sustainability performance by optimizing the trade-off between the building’s life-cycle energy (LCE) and life-cycle cost (LCC) when choosing material for the envelope. The results of the case study demonstrated the applicability of the framework and prototype in optimizing the trade-off between conflicting objectives, such as LCE and LCC, during the design process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
BIM, multidisciplinary optimization, middleware, master model, house-building
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Management and Building Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72517 (URN)10.3390/su11010286 (DOI)000457127300286 ()2-s2.0-85059672308 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-01-30 (svasva)

Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-01-11 Last updated: 2019-02-22Bibliographically approved
Kubicki, S., Mukkavaara, J. & Sandberg, M. (2018). A master model approach for design and analysis of roof trusses. In: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany: . Paper presented at 35th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction and International AEC/FM Hackathon: The Future of Building Things, ISARC 2018; Berlin; Germany; 20-25 July 2018 (pp. 325-331). , 35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A master model approach for design and analysis of roof trusses
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany, 2018, Vol. 35, p. 325-331Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Apartment housebuilding takes too long time and optimal solutions are seldom found. In housebuilding projects, there is an increased popularity of using virtual models for analyses of structural integrity and floor layout. However, these analyses are seldom coordinated since the models rarely are linked and the designers are not working close enough. As such, optimal designs are hard to find and time flies since even small changes turn into many iterations between design and structural analysis. General building information modeling and virtual design and construction methodologies suggest the use of interoperability and automation to bridge these gaps. There are examples of design tools that link different models using off-the-shelf tools or programming. However, most of the housebuilding companies seldom have these advanced tools or have the competence to do advanced programming. In this paper, we suggest an approach of using visual programming in a common BIM-software to explore the linking of different models. As an example, we study design of roof trusses since for many different roof shapes the same rules usually apply to the design of the truss. This project connects a BIM-software and a FEM-program with a master model. The model automatically generates a roof with the designed truss, draws the representation in a BIM-software and analyze it in a FEM-program. The early evaluations of this visual programming based approach are promising as there are possibilities to connect other domain models and create an even richer evaluation bases for early apartment housebuilding design.

Keywords
Roof trusses, Design automation, Finite element model
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Management and Building Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70916 (URN)10.22260/ISARC2018/0046 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053896778 (Scopus ID)
Conference
35th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction and International AEC/FM Hackathon: The Future of Building Things, ISARC 2018; Berlin; Germany; 20-25 July 2018
Available from: 2018-09-20 Created: 2018-09-20 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Shadram, F. & Mukkavaara, J. (2018). An Integrated BIM-based framework for the optimization of the trade-off between embodied and operational energy. Energy and Buildings, 158, 1189-1205
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Integrated BIM-based framework for the optimization of the trade-off between embodied and operational energy
2018 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 158, p. 1189-1205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Design choices with a unilateral focus on the reduction of operational energy for developing energy-efficient and near-zero energy building practices can increase the impact of the embodied energy, as there is a trade-off between embodied and operational energy. Multi-objective optimization approaches enable exploration of the trade-off problems to find sustainable design strategies, but there has been limited research in applying it to find optimal design solution(s) considering the embodied versus operational energy trade-off. Additionally, integration of this approach into a Building Information Modeling (BIM) for facilitating set up of the building model toward optimization and utilizing the benefits of BIM for sharing information in an interoperable and reusable manner, has been mostly overlooked. To address these issues, this paper presents a framework that supports the making of appropriate design decisions by solving the trade-off problem between embodied and operational energy through the integration of a multi-objective optimization approach with a BIM-driven design process. The applicability of the framework was tested by developing a prototype and using it in a case study of a low energy dwelling in Sweden, which showed the potential for reducing the building’s Life Cycle Energy (LCE) use by accounting for the embodied versus operational energy trade-off to find optimal design solution(s). In general, the results of the case study demonstrated that in a low energy dwelling, depending on the site location, small reductions in operational energy (i.e. 140 GJ) could result in larger increases in embodied energy (i.e. 340 GJ) and the optimization process could yield up to 108 GJ of LCE savings relative to the initial design. This energy saving was equivalent to up to 8 years of the initial design’s operational energy use for the dwelling, excluding household electricity use.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Engineering and Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66697 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2017.11.017 (DOI)000428010300020 ()2-s2.0-85034624206 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-12-05 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
Sandberg, K., Pousette, A., Norén, J., Sandberg, M., Olofsson, T. & Mukkavaara, J. (2018). Hållbarhetsutvärdering av byggnader: Case Ripan i Kiruna. RISE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hållbarhetsutvärdering av byggnader: Case Ripan i Kiruna
Show others...
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sustainability includes several parameters, and these can be measured and valued in many different ways. This study focuses on balancing the various parts to achieve sustainability by minimizing energy for heating and energy to produce the materials used in the building as well as minimizing cost for material investment and cost for heating using optimization techniques. This is balanced together with the environmental impact. This report describes an initial study for sustainability optimization of a smaller building. The goal is to develop a comprehensive approach to provide a broader basis of decisions for new construction.

The calculation included the building envelope (exterior walls, roof and floors), interior walls and stabilizing elements for different frames of wood (timber frame and CLT).

The result from the Ripan Case shows that the timber frame design has the lowest embodied energy and operating energy, and lowest cost for investment and heating during the operating phase. The environmental impact of the timber frame design was also low.

Abstract [sv]

Hållbarhet innefattar flera parametrar och dessa kan mätas och värderas på många olika sätt. Att väga ihop de olika delarna för att uppnå hållbarhet genom att minimera förbrukad energi för uppvärmning och energi för att producera material till bygget samt investeringskostnader för material och kostnader för uppvärmning är fokus i denna rapport. Detta vägs samman med miljöpåverkan. En inledande studie för hållbarhetsoptimering av en mindre byggnad är genomförd med målet är att utveckla en övergripande metod för att ge bredare beslutsunderlag vid nybyggnad.

Beräkningar av inbyggd energi, driftsenergi, investerings- och uppvärmningskostnader har genomförts för ett planerat hus på Camp Ripan i Kiruna. I beräkningen av byggnaden inkluderades klimatskärm (ytterväggar, stomstabiliserande element och grund) för två olika stommar av trä (träregelstomme och KL-trä). För miljöberäkningarna användes främst indata från EPDer och resultatet redovisas i form av klimatpåverkan, CO2-ekvivalenter.

Den utvecklade metoden ger potential för bättre ekologisk och ekonomisk hållbarhet genom ett optimerat val av byggnadsmaterial för byggnader. Optimeringsalgoritmen ger förslag på byggnadsmaterial med minst energiåtgång vid produktion, den sk inbyggda energin, samt vid uppvärmning under driftsfasen samt lägst kostnader. Miljöaspekten vägs också in i bedömningen för att få ett mer heltäckande beslutsunderlag för beställare och projektörer. Metoden är tänkt att i fortsatta studier vidareutvecklas för användning på mer komplexa byggnader som till exempel flerbostadshus.

Resultatet från Case Ripan visar att regelkonstruktionen har lägst inbyggd energi, driftsenergi, investeringskostnad samt kostnad för uppvärmning under driftsfasen. Även miljöpåverkan från regelkonstruktionen var låg.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
RISE, 2018. p. 33
Keywords
Sustainability, low energy house, energy optimization, LCA, timber house
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Construction Management and Building Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73467 (URN)978-91-88907-33-2 (ISBN)
Funder
Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth
Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-04-11Bibliographically approved
Jansson, G., Mukkavaara, J. & Olofsson, T. (2018). Interactive visualization for information flow in production chains: Case study industrialised house-building. In: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany: . Paper presented at 35th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC 2018), Berlin, July 20-25 2018 (pp. 382-388). IAARC Publications, 35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interactive visualization for information flow in production chains: Case study industrialised house-building
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 35th ISARC, Berlin, Germany, IAARC Publications , 2018, Vol. 35, p. 382-388Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Predefinitions in house-building platforms is developed as routines to manage project building information models over to production data by documents and digital drawings. Visualisation of the information flow in the industrialised house-building process is hard to track and information are often presented as islands, seldom described in the flow for the entire process. Interactive visualisation, using game technology, has open up for new applications of data -transformation, -visualization and -simulation of project information which is less studied in the context of industrialised house-building. This paper tries to address this issue via a combination of game engine technology and the predefined industrialised house-building process. The game engine technology allow development for end -user demands and functionality to express and visualise values for the daily planning and execution of processes. In a case study approach the development and analysis of four building projects were studied and chosen to the range of product platform predefinitions. Based on object structure for different views, models and the related metadata were visualised with an immersive virtual environment prototype. The prototype, based on game engine technology, was developed to manage incoming building projects variations that followed house-building platform predefinitions. As a visualising tool of engineering, on-site planning and production process the game engine technology simulates and visualize views on product structures, production information, assembling and operation instructions by interactive functions in the game environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IAARC Publications, 2018
Keywords
Game engines, industrialised, house-building, information flow, visualization
National Category
Building Technologies Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Management and Building Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71305 (URN)10.22260/ISARC2018/0054 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053901208 (Scopus ID)
Conference
35th International Symposium on Automation and Robotics in Construction (ISARC 2018), Berlin, July 20-25 2018
Available from: 2018-10-23 Created: 2018-10-23 Last updated: 2018-10-23Bibliographically approved
Mukkavaara, J. (2018). Structures for supporting BIM-based automation in the design process. (Licentiate dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structures for supporting BIM-based automation in the design process
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Strukturer för stödjande av BIM-baserad automation i designprocessen
Abstract [en]

During recent decades the advent of IT in the construction industry has prompted a gradual shift from manual paper-based processes to computer-aided design and production. In this shift there has been an increasing interest in the application of building information modelling (BIM) for the overall management of information throughout the lifecycle of a building. By implementing BIM and automating the workflows within, decreased time spent on engineering tasks and an increased focus on building performance could be achieved during the design process. Due to the complexity of the design process it is rare that a single BIM application can manage all the activities that are present. This puts pressure on the coupling of multiple applications, tools, and information. The challenges that this poses on interoperability and information exchange has received a wealth of attention in research however it is still argued that many of these operations require manual input. Automating parts of a BIM-based workflow is facilitated by the possibilities that exists for exchanging information and controlling the flow of information. This implies that not only do we need to understand this on a data level, but also that we understand how the system and information structures can be managed to enable this.

The purpose of this thesis was to investigate how structures could be applied on both a system and information level to support automation within a BIM-based design process, and more specifically how these structures could be used to overcome some of the challenges of information exchange. Three studies were conducted to explore different methods and their potential in achieving automated workflows. The findings of these studies were then analysed against a theoretical framework based on structures of systems and information. The results show that choosing a distributed method for structuring systems allows for the coupling of multiple software, tools, and information without the need for a single shared schema. The critical component of the distributed system structure is a middleware which is responsible for controlling the flow of information. It is the middleware that when implemented allows for the management of multiple sources of information, each with their corresponding schemas. The results also showed that information which travels between the components of the distributed system can be structured according to their relationships to provide the foundation for a mapping. This structure enables the decomposition of information that can be used to transfer information only relevant to the current activity. When applied this aids to resolve the coupling of information at each activity in an automated BIM-based workflow.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Keywords
BIM, Automation, Distributed System, Information, Structures
National Category
Construction Management
Research subject
Construction Management and Building Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70412 (URN)978-91-7790-184-6 (ISBN)978-91-7790-185-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2018-10-10, F231, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-08-16 Created: 2018-08-15 Last updated: 2018-09-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4843-8936

Search in DiVA

Show all publications