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Pamidi, Taraka Rama KrishnaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4657-6844
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Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Pamidi, T. R., Johansson, Ö., Löfqvist, T. & Shankar, V. (2020). Comparison of two different ultrasound reactors for the treatment of cellulose fibers. Ultrasonics sonochemistry, 62, Article ID 104841.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of two different ultrasound reactors for the treatment of cellulose fibers
2020 (English)In: Ultrasonics sonochemistry, ISSN 1350-4177, E-ISSN 1873-2828, Vol. 62, article id 104841Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The pulp and paper industry is in continuous need for energy-efficient production processes. In the refining process of mechanical pulp, fibrillation is one of the essential unit operations that count for up to 80% of the total energy use. This initial study explores the potential and development of new type of scalable ultrasound reactor for energy efficient mechanical pulping. The developed reactor is of continuous flow type and based on both hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation in order to modify the mechanical properties of cellulose fibers. A comparison of the prototype tube reactor is made with a batch reactor type where the ultrasonic horn is inserted in the fluid. The pulp samples were sonicated by high-intensity ultrasound, using tuned sonotrodes enhancing the sound pressure and cavitation intensity by a controlled resonance in the contained fluid. The resonant frequency of the batch reactor is 20.8 kHz and for the tube reactor it is 22.8 kHz. The power conversion efficiency for the beaker setup is 25% and 36% in case of the tube reactor in stationary mode. The objective is to verify the benefit of resonance enhanced cavitation intensity when avoiding the effect of Bjerkenes forces. The setup used enables to keep the fibers in the pressure antinodes of the contained fluid. In case of the continuous flow reactor the effect of hydrodynamic cavitation is also induced. The intensity of the ultrasound in both reactors was found to be high enough to produce cavitation in the fluid suspension to enhance the fiber wall treatment. Results show that the mechanical properties of the fibers were changed by the sonification in all tests. The continuous flow type was approximately 50% more efficient than the beaker. The effect of keeping fibers in the antinode of the resonant mode shape of the irradiation frequency was also significant. The effect on fiber properties for the tested mass fraction was determined by a low-intensity ultrasound pulse-echo based measurement method, and by a standard pulp analyzer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Ultrasound reactor, Hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation, Cellulose fiber properties, Cavitation, Birch fibers
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics; Electronic systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76606 (URN)10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.104841 (DOI)000513988100003 ()31806547 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85076529593 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 166518
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-02-26 (alebob)

Available from: 2019-11-04 Created: 2019-11-04 Last updated: 2020-03-10Bibliographically approved
Najjarzadeh, N., Krige, A., Pamidi, T. R., Johansson, Ö., Enman, J., Matsakas, L., . . . Christakopoulos, P. (2020). Numerical modeling and verification of a sonobioreactor and its application on two model microorganisms. PLoS ONE, 15(3), Article ID e0229738.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical modeling and verification of a sonobioreactor and its application on two model microorganisms
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2020 (English)In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 3, article id e0229738Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ultrasound has many uses, such as in medical imaging, monitoring of crystallization, characterization of emulsions and suspensions, and disruption of cell membranes in the food industry. It can also affect microbial cells by promoting or slowing their growth and increasing the production of some metabolites. However, the exact mechanism explaining the effect of ultrasound has not been identified yet. Most equipment employed to study the effect of ultrasound on microorganisms has been designed for other applications and then only slightly modified. This results in limited control over ultrasound frequency and input power, or pressure distribution in the reactor. The present study aimed to obtain a well-defined reactor by simulating the pressure distribution of a sonobioreactor. Specifically, we optimized a sonotrode to match the bottle frequency and compared it to measured results to verify the accuracy of the simulation. The measured pressure distribution spectrum presented the same overall trend as the simulated spectrum. However, the peaks were much less intense, likely due to non-linear events such as the collapse of cavitation bubbles. To test the application of the sonobioreactor in biological systems, two biotechnologically interesting microorganisms were assessed: an electroactive bacterium, Geobacter sulfurreducens, and a lignocellulose-degrading fungus, Fusarium oxysporum. Sonication resulted in increased malate production by Gsulfurreducens, but no major effect on growth. In comparison, morphology and growth of Foxysporum were more sensitive to ultrasound intensity. Despite considerable morphological changes at 4 W input power, the growth rate was not adversely affected; however, at 12 W, growth was nearly halted. The above findings indicate that the novel sonobioreactor provides an effective tool for studying the impact of ultrasound on microorganisms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PLOS, 2020
National Category
Bioprocess Technology Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Biochemical Process Engineering; Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78111 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0229738 (DOI)32160222 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85081204531 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-03-26 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-03-19 Created: 2020-03-19 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Johansson, Ö., Pamidi, T. R., Shankar, V. & Löfqvist, T. (2019). Acoustic design principles for energy efficient excitation of a high intensity cavitation zone. In: Martin Ochmann (Ed.), Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, integrating 4th EAA Euroregio 2019: ICA 2019, 9 - 13 September. Paper presented at 23rd International Congress on Acoustics (pp. 948-955). Aachen, Germany
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustic design principles for energy efficient excitation of a high intensity cavitation zone
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, integrating 4th EAA Euroregio 2019: ICA 2019, 9 - 13 September / [ed] Martin Ochmann, Aachen, Germany, 2019, p. 948-955Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Energy-efficient process intensification is a key aspect for a sustainable industrial production. To improve energy conversion efficiency high intensity cavitation is a promising method, especially in cases where the material to be treated is valuable and on the micro meter scale. Transient collapsing cavitation bubbles gives powerful effects on objects immersed in fluids, like cellulose fibers, mineral particles, enzymes, etc. The cavitation process needs optimization and control, since optimal conditions is multivariate challenge. This study focuses on different design principles to achieve high intensity cavitation in a specific volume in a continuous flow. This study explores some potential design principles to obtain energy efficient process intensification. The objective is to tune several different resonance phenomena to create a powerful excitation of a flowing suspension (two-phase flow and cavitation bubbles). The reactor is excited by sonotrodes, connected to two coupled resonant tube structures, at the critical frequency. Finally cavitation bubbles are initiated by a flow through a venturi nozzle. The acoustically optimised reactor geometry is modelled in Comsol Multiphysics®, and excited by dedicated ultrasound signals at three different frequencies. The effect of the high intensity cavitation is experimentally evaluated by calorimetric method, foil tests and degree of fibrillation on cellulose fibers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen, Germany: , 2019
Keywords
Structural acoustics, Ultrasound, Hydrodynamics, Cavitation
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76063 (URN)978-3-939296-15-7 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd International Congress on Acoustics
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2019-09-19 Created: 2019-09-19 Last updated: 2019-10-22
Pamidi, T. R., Johansson, Ö. & Löfqvist, T. (2019). Comparison of Cavitation Effect in Case of Fixed and Free Fibers in an Ultrasound Beaker. In: Martin Ochmann (Ed.), Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, integrating 4th EAA Euroregio 2019: ICA 2019, 9 - 13 September. Paper presented at 23rd International Congress on Acoustics (pp. 8217-8224). Aachen, Germany
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Cavitation Effect in Case of Fixed and Free Fibers in an Ultrasound Beaker
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress on Acoustics, integrating 4th EAA Euroregio 2019: ICA 2019, 9 - 13 September / [ed] Martin Ochmann, Aachen, Germany, 2019, p. 8217-8224Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this study, we investigate the impact of high-intensity ultrasound treatment on the mechanical properties of pulp fibers. The pulp fiber samples are sonicated in an acoustically optimised beaker where high-intensity ultrasound is generated using a tuned sonotrode device. The idea is to create a controlled resonance to efficiently enhance the sound pressure in the beaker. Input power is 90Watt. The objective is to define the difference between freely suspended fibers in a beaker compared to keeping fibers in a fixed position. The hypothesis is that fiber treatment at a specific input power will be more efficient in the case when fibers are kept in a high pressure zone. Since the fiber wall is a layered structure, it is likely to delaminate internally which will affect the mechanical properties of the fiber. The effect on fiber properties is verified by measuring the ultrasound attenuation spectra for the treated fibers. The attenuation measurements are based on measurements of a low-intensity ultrasound pulse-echo technique. On a macroscopic scale, changes in the attenuation spectra relates to a change in mechanical properties of the fiber wall, since the suspended fibers more or less retain their diameter and length distributions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Aachen, Germany: , 2019
Keywords
Ultrasonics, Cavitation, Paper pulp, Cellulose fibers
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76050 (URN)978-3-939296-15-7 (ISBN)
Conference
23rd International Congress on Acoustics
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2019-09-18 Created: 2019-09-18 Last updated: 2019-10-22
Pamidi, T. R., Johansson, Ö. & Löfqvist, T. (2019). Energy Efficient Fibrillation of Cellulose Fibers using an Ultrasound Reactor. In: : . Paper presented at Marcus Wallenberg Prize (MWP) Event 2019 – Young Researchers’ Challenge; October 6–9, 2019, Stockholm, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Efficient Fibrillation of Cellulose Fibers using an Ultrasound Reactor
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The pulp and paper industry is in continuous need for energy-efficient production processes. Therefore, there is a focus in reducing electrical energy use in the production of paper.  The most energy demanding processes are related to fibrillation, which in some cases use up to 80% of required electrical power, with a net efficiency of 1%. The presented work focus on ultrasound controlled cavitation in concentrating the processing energy to provide an energy efficient development of cellulose fibers. The objectives are to develop a scalable cavitation reactor to obtain energy-efficient fibrillation of cellulose fibers aiming at reducing the energy use by 50%. Our goal is to develop a methodology based on multiphysic simulation for the design of an alternative refiner based on ultrasound cavitation. The reactor concept is of a flow through type where cavitation bubbles are initiated in the fiber suspension by the pressure release when the pulp flow through a venturi nozzle. The induced cavitation bubbles are collapsed by high intensity ultrasound at resonant frequencies. The collapsing bubbles and their associated shock waves modify the fiber wall properties which enables fibrillation.  Energy efficient fibrillation of cellulose fibers is therefore possible to achieve through an optimized combination of hydrodynamic and ultrasonic controlled cavitation. Initial results shows a positive effect on fiber quality. However, further optimization of process parameters like temperature and static pressure is required.

Keywords
Ultrasonic cavitation, Hydrodynamic cavitation, Cellulose fibers, Ultrasound reactor
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76708 (URN)
Conference
Marcus Wallenberg Prize (MWP) Event 2019 – Young Researchers’ Challenge; October 6–9, 2019, Stockholm, Sweden
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 166518
Available from: 2019-11-14 Created: 2019-11-14 Last updated: 2019-11-27
Pamidi, T. R. (2019). Process Intensification by Ultrasound Controlled Cavitation. (Licentiate dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Process Intensification by Ultrasound Controlled Cavitation
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Process industries are cornerstones in today’s industrialized society. They contribute significantly in the manufacturing of various goods and products that are used in our day-to-day life. Our society’s paradigm of consumerism accompanied by a rise in global population drives an ever increasing demand for goods. One of many strategies developed to satisfy these demands and at the same time improve production capabilities is known as process intensification. As an example, this can be accomplished by implementation of devices using the principle of hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation. High-intensity cavitation in the ultrasonic range can change the physical and chemical properties of a wide range of substances and hence, improve the production rate or quality.

Despite the generally accepted benefits of hydrodynamic and acoustic cavitation, applications in the process industry are yet limited. The reasons are that the method requires extensive optimization, which depends on multiple process parameters and encounters problem in the implementation on a larger scale. Scalable cavitation reactor concepts for industrial applications need to meet challenges like stability and robustness, energy efficiency and high flow rates. This thesis focuses on the methodology for the design and optimization of a flow through cavitation reactor.

An ultrasound reactor concept has been developed and tested for two different applications: i) Fibrillation processes typical for paper and pulp industry; ii) Metal leaching of mineral concentrates. Simulations were carried out using a commercially available software for multiphysics modeling which combines acoustics, structural dynamics, fluid dynamics and piezoelectrics. However, the optimization procedure requires extensive experimental work in parallel with multi-physical simulations. In general, the application leads to hydrodynamic initiation of small gas bubbles in the fluid to be excited and collapsed by high-intensity ultrasound. This transient collapse of the cavitation bubbles provides both mechanical and chemical effect on materials.

The developed reactor has a power conversion efficiency of 36% in batch mode and is well suited for a scale-up. In flow-through mode, the cavitation effect improves extensively and provides stable results. Energy efficiency requires hydrodynamic initiation of cavitation bubbles, high acoustic cavitation intensity by multiple excitation frequencies adapted to the optimized reactor geometry, as well as optimal process pressure and temperature with respect to the materials to be treated. The impact of flow conditions and hydrodynamic cavitation is significant and almost doubles the yield at the same ultrasonic power input.

In the case of fibrillation of cellulose fibers, results obtained indicate that generated cavitation intensity changes the mechanical properties of the fiber wall. In the case of leaching, experiments show that six hours of exposure gave a 57% recovery of tungsten from the scheelite concentrate at 80°C and atmospheric pressure. Future research will focus on different types of excitation signals, extended reactor volume, increased flow rates and use of a higher process temperature. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Keywords
Ultrasound, Acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation, Process intensification, Sonochemistry
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73856 (URN)978-91-7790-384-0 (ISBN)978-91-7790-385-7 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-09-04, F231, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 166518
Available from: 2019-05-07 Created: 2019-05-06 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
Pamidi, T. R., Johansson, Ö. & Löfqvist, T. (2018). Comparison of Different Concepts of UltrasoundReactors Using Numerical Simulations. In: : . Paper presented at 16th Meeting of the European Society of Sonochemistry.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of Different Concepts of UltrasoundReactors Using Numerical Simulations
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

Sonochemical reactors are used for process intensification based on efficientenergy transfer due to ultrasound in order to cause transient cavitation in the medium.Ultrasonic reactors are extensively used for numerous applications due to their differentfeatures. The process of ultrasound cavitation can be defined as generation, growth andviolent collapse of microbubbles under ultrasonic irradiation which can release a highamount of energy in a small volume. The released energy causes a sudden increase intemperature and pressure which thereby can lead to extensive process intensification. Thepresent work deals with the evaluation of two different configurations of ultrasound reactorsusing both numerical modeling and experimental verification. The evaluation is based onprediction of the pressure distribution, verified by foil tests and with calorimetric method.The two reactors were developed to be used for the treatment of cellulose fibers to improveenergy efficiency in the fibrillation process. The goal is to optimize cavitation intensityand minimize the coupling loss factors. The development and evaluation of these two reactorconcepts aim to improve the design methodology for a scalable flow through reactor conceptwith high yield and energy efficiency

National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73782 (URN)
Conference
16th Meeting of the European Society of Sonochemistry
Available from: 2019-04-29 Created: 2019-04-29 Last updated: 2019-09-06
Johansson, Ö., Löfqvist, T. & Pamidi, T. R. (2017). Design of high-intensity ultrasound reactor. In: IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS: . Paper presented at 2017 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), Washington, DC, 6-9 Sept. 2017. Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, Article ID 8092948.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Design of high-intensity ultrasound reactor
2017 (English)In: IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, IUS, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2017, article id 8092948Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Design and optmiziation of ultrasonic reactors are important objectives in sonochemical processing. The recent expansion of the use of ultrasonic reactors in various research projects all faces the problem of scaling up laboratory results for industrial use. A traditional ultrasonic reactor usually has several issues, such as low effectiveness and complex and unstable system performance, which all are unfavorable for efficient sonochemical processing. This study adresses these issues and investigates a new flow type ultrasonic reactor designed to generate transient cavitation as the main source for ultrasound for sonochemical processing. This study proposes the principle of the flow type ultrasonic reactor design to generate transient cavitation. The objective of this work is to design an ultrasonic reactor with a new geometry. The idea is to improve process efficiency based on resonance enhanced ultrasound controlled cavitation

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Computer Society, 2017
Series
IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium, ISSN 1948-5719
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics; Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67244 (URN)10.1109/ULTSYM.2017.8092948 (DOI)000416948403005 ()2-s2.0-85039437533 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-3383-0 (ISBN)
Conference
2017 IEEE International Ultrasonics Symposium (IUS), Washington, DC, 6-9 Sept. 2017
Available from: 2018-01-11 Created: 2018-01-11 Last updated: 2020-01-22Bibliographically approved
Johansson, Ö., Pamidi, T., Khoshkhoo, M. & Sandström, Å. (2017). Sustainable and energy efficient leaching of tungsten(W) by ultrasound controlled cavitation. Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainable and energy efficient leaching of tungsten(W) by ultrasound controlled cavitation
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The project aims to use ultrasound controlled cavitation to achieve a more energy efficient leaching process. Locally, collapsing cavitation bubbles cause an extremely high pressure, shock waves and high temperature, which provide an opportunity to perform the leaching process at a much lower temperature than in an autoclave (20 bar overpressure and 220 ° C). The results show that the method works, but that a higher static pressure and thus temperatures are necessary to achieve a leaching recovery rate corresponding to today's autoclave technology. Another process parameter of importance is flow control and the initiation of cavitation bubbles that occur through a geometrically optimized nozzle (orifice plate). Numerical and experimental adaptation of the developed reactor with respect to the leaching conditions (Sodium hydroxide and Scheelite concentrate), required more time than expected. Best test results show that an energy supplement with ultrasonic controlled cavitation of 104 kWh / kg increases the leaching recovery by 21%. The leaching reagent temperature 60° C was determined regarding available reference data and was thought to be close to optimum for intensive cavitation in atmospheric pressure. Optimum temperature relates to the leaching reagent, vaporization temperature, density, boiling point, surface tension, and viscosity. Generally, for leaching is that higher temperatures are required to increase the chemical reaction rate (requires overpressure). The modified reactor principle provides stable results and is possible to scale up. Higher cavitation intensity for shorter finishing time and higher recovery rate require advanced flow induction, multiple excitation frequencies adapted to the optimized reactor geometry, as well as optimal process pressure and temperature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2017. p. 20
Series
Research report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1528
Keywords
Ultrasound, Cavitation, Leaching, Scheelite, Vibro acoustic optimization
National Category
Mineral and Mine Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics; Process Metallurgy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66286 (URN)978-91-7790-160-0 (ISBN)
Projects
Vinnova SIP-Strim
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-02620Vinnova
Available from: 2017-10-27 Created: 2017-10-27 Last updated: 2019-09-11Bibliographically approved
Vijigiri, V. & Pamidi, T. R. (2014). Ultrasound induced cavitation and resonance amplification using adaptive feedback Control System.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultrasound induced cavitation and resonance amplification using adaptive feedback Control System
2014 (English)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Acoustic cavitation in fluids using high powered ultrasound has been of great interest in industries and biomedical engineering. The need for high-intensity focused ultrasound (sound with frequencies between 20 kHz to 10 MHz) and modeling of such systems has drawn great attention in engineering. Ultrasound excitation has found recent application in terms of replacing the existing dynamic mechanical systems that use high energy with low levels of efficiency. The proposed thesis work focuses on an application of acoustic cavitation and on adaptive control of resonance amplification to be used in the paper pulp industry. The primary objective is to keep a system of coupled and tuned resonances stable, and by that obtain high cavitation intensity in a water filled beaker. The secondary aspect is to numerically model and experimentally evaluate a prototype beaker, where the adaptive control scheme is implemented to attain high and stable cavitation intensity. The characteristic control parameters (excitation frequency and amplitude) can be adjusted to the fluid condition in the beaker (reactor) by a feedback control from a pressure sensor inside the beaker. The aim of this feedback loop is to keep the resonance phenomena stable with respect to an adaptable frequency. In this application, the resonance amplification is mainly used to generate and control cavitation at a frequency that corresponds to a range of beaker natural frequencies. The results of the development process show that high cavitation intensity can be achieved by ultrasound induced power. The electric power input required to achieve high cavitation intensity is relatively low and resulted in high energy efficiency. The results of the study will be used for an application for fibrillation of cellulose fibers to further improve energy efficiency in paper pulp industry.

Keywords
Acoustic cavitation, ultrasonic horn, High intensity ultrasound, Sound pressure level(SPL) Acoustic pressure field
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61111 (URN)
Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4657-6844

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