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Publications (10 of 23) Show all publications
Chapman, D. & Larsson, A. (2020). Climate change and human behaviour: Understanding modal choice in a rapidly urbanising Arctic. In: Local or Global Arctic?: Multi-scaled considerations of connections and remoteness in climate-impacted communities. Paper presented at Arctic Frontiers Science, 2020.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate change and human behaviour: Understanding modal choice in a rapidly urbanising Arctic
2020 (English)In: Local or Global Arctic?: Multi-scaled considerations of connections and remoteness in climate-impacted communities, 2020Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This research explores the human dimension of non-motorised transport, i.e. soft-mobility in Arctic communities. Empirical results are used to show how people’s modal choice in the European Arctic is being influenced by climate evolution and human-made climate change. From these results, it is possible to conceive new visions of the how to design the outside environments of Arctic settlements that can better enable people to move around in Arctic communities with reduced reliance on vehicles. At the societal level, this research will help reduce energy consumption and pollution from transport. For the individual, it highlights social, economic and the health benefits of soft-mobility. This includes creating places that are attractive, safe, and recognisable, as a basis for people’s informed decision-making about outdoor activities and modal choice. Pilot projects are ongoing in Riksgränsen, Björkliden and Abisko (Sweden) with data collected from residents and tourists using citizen science. Outcomes have practical and policy implications for town planning and tourism.

The project is supported by the ARCTIC FIVE (a partnership of UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Luleå University of Technology, Umeå University, The University of Lapland and The University of Oulu) and Access Abisko 2020-22 (research enabling by the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat).

Keywords
soft-mobility, Arctic communities, climate change, tourism
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77610 (URN)
Conference
Arctic Frontiers Science, 2020
Available from: 2020-02-02 Created: 2020-02-02 Last updated: 2020-02-14
Larsson, A. & Chapman, D. (2020). Perceived impact of meteorological conditions on the use of public space in winter settlements. International journal of biometeorology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perceived impact of meteorological conditions on the use of public space in winter settlements
2020 (English)In: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to assess the impact of meteorological conditions on the use of public space in Scandinavia and Canada. Between September 21 and December 18, 2017, a cross-sectional online survey ‘EAMQ-Climate: space’ was distributed via web-based platforms. Survey responses were received from 361 residents (258 people from Scandinavia and 103 from Canada). The relative impact of the meteorological determinants on the use of public space was calculated, and a factor analysis was performed. Disparities between Canada and Scandinavia as well as between the climate zones represented were analysed using ANOVA. Overall results showed that the most significant meteorological enablers for the use of outdoor public spaces in winter were solar gain, snowfall and snow-covered surfaces. The main barriers were slush-covered and icy surfaces, rainfall and darkness. Wind and cold were conditions with less influence. The impact of rain and ice, however, differed between climatic zones. It was also established that, when addressing the meteorological impact on avoiding the use of public spaces in winter, it is vital to discriminate between conditions related to a) the ground surface and b) ambient conditions, as well as the particular significance of c) snow and sun, and d) darkness. For the design of public space in winter cities, we conclude that designers need to focus on a wider range of weather conditions than sun, wind and cold, and include snow, rainfall, slushy and icy ground and poor visibility. The study suggests that winter public space has a higher climatic design requirement to be successful than streets and pathways that are mainly used for soft mobility.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Public space, Urban microclimate, Winter cities, Outdoor activity
National Category
Architectural Engineering Physiotherapy
Research subject
Architecture; Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77253 (URN)10.1007/s00484-019-01852-5 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-12-26 Created: 2019-12-26 Last updated: 2020-01-07
Chapman, D. & Larsson, A. (2019). Climate change and human behaviour: Understanding modal choice in a rapidly urbanising Arctic. In: Adaptation to Climate Change: . Paper presented at Arctic Week 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate change and human behaviour: Understanding modal choice in a rapidly urbanising Arctic
2019 (English)In: Adaptation to Climate Change, 2019Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This poster explores the human dimension of non-motorised transport, i.e. soft-mobility in Arctic communities. Empirical results are used to show how people’s modal choice in the European Arctic is being influenced by climate evolution and human-made climate change. From these results, it is possible to conceive new visions of the how to design the outside environments of Arctic settlements that can better enable people to move around in Arctic communities with reduced reliance on vehicles. At the societal level, this research will help reduce energy consumption and pollution from transport.

National Category
Physiotherapy Architectural Engineering
Research subject
Architecture; Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77169 (URN)
Conference
Arctic Week 2019
Available from: 2019-12-13 Created: 2019-12-13 Last updated: 2020-01-07
Chapman, D. & Larsson, A. (2019). Toward an Integrated Model for Soft-Mobility. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(19), Article ID 3669.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward an Integrated Model for Soft-Mobility
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 19, article id 3669Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A key urban design challenge is to create built environments that encourage outdoor activityall year round. This study explores a new model for soft-mobility that places the interaction betweenthe urban form, the seasonal climate and climate change, and the individual at the center of people’ssoft-mobility choices, or in more general, their modal choice. The research methods used werecomparative studies of documents, surveys, mental mapping, and photo elicitation. These studieswere undertaken to research people’s outdoor activity in the built environment during the winterseason of a cold climate settlement. The results were analyzed against the three-dimensions of themodel. In the discussion it is argued that in places with significant climate variation, the interactionbetween the urban form, the season, and the individual together influence soft-mobility choices. Inturn, these interactions influence people’s level of outdoor activity and the individual health benefitssuch activity can aord. In conclusion, it is highlighted that all three dimensions of the model are in aconstant state of change and evolution, especially in relation to planning and development processesand climate change.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
urban design, outdoor activity, health outcomes, climate change
National Category
Social Sciences Architectural Engineering Physiotherapy
Research subject
Architecture; Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76156 (URN)10.3390/ijerph16193669 (DOI)000494748600165 ()31569591 (PubMedID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-10-01 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-09-29 Created: 2019-09-29 Last updated: 2019-12-09Bibliographically approved
Chapman, D., Nilsson, K. L., Rizzo, A. & Larsson, A. (2019). Winter City Urbanism: Enabling All Year Connectivity for Soft Mobility. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(10), Article ID 1820.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Winter City Urbanism: Enabling All Year Connectivity for Soft Mobility
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 1820Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study explores connectivity for soft mobility in the winter season. Working with residents from the sub-arctic city of Luleå, Sweden, the research examines how the interaction between the built environment and winter season affects people’s use of the outdoor environment. The research questions for this study are, 1) how do residents perceive the effects of winter on an areas spatial structure and pattern of streets and pathways? and 2) what enablers and barriers impact resident soft mobility choices and use of the public realm in winter? Methods used were mental mapping and photo elicitation exercises. These were used to gain a better understanding of people’s perception of soft mobility in winter. The results were analysed to identify how soft mobility is influenced by the winter season. The discussion highlights that at the neighbourhood scale, residents perceive that the winter alters an areas spatial structure and pattern of streets and pathways. It was also seen to reduce ease of understanding of the public realm and townscape. In conclusion, it is argued that new and re-tooled town planning strategies, such as extending blue/ green infrastructure planning to include white space could help better enable all year outdoor activity in winter cities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
urban design, soft mobility, walkable environment, physical activity, health outcomes, active living
National Category
Architectural Engineering Physiotherapy
Research subject
Architecture; Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70506 (URN)10.3390/ijerph16101820 (DOI)000470967500154 ()31121986 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85066831352 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-27 (johcin);

Artikeln har tidigare förekommit som manuskript i avhandling.

Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Larsson, A. & Chapman, D. (2018). Changing risks to outdoor activity in the Arctic: Resilience to climate-related community change. In: : . Paper presented at The UArctic Congress 2018, Oulu & Helsinki, Finland, September 3-7 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changing risks to outdoor activity in the Arctic: Resilience to climate-related community change
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Arctic communities have over generations evolved lifestyles that fit with working and living with local conditions and seasonal variations. With climate change, however, comes evolving and unknown weather’s that these communities need to adapt too. These environmental changes may present new risk and unexpected outcomes to outdoor activity that communities will need to address.

In subarctic regions, pedestrians encounter a variety of road or pavement surface conditions, such as snow, ice, melting ice or mixed icy and snowy surfaces.  Slips and falls are a significant cause of work- and leisure-time accidents. The costs for medical care of fall-related injury treatment is high. Fear can also result in physical inactivity which is a significant population health concern worldwide. 

This presentation highlights the traditional risks associated with outdoor activity in winter and how they are changing with climate change. It does this through the analysis of survey responses about the use of outdoor public space. The survey is from 1) 344 people in the city of Luleå Sweden (Dfc climate classification area), and 2) 325 responses from people living in Dfb and Dfc climate areas across the world, e.g. Canada.

At a societal level, this change suggests that new forms of sustainable development and public policy are needed. These could help reduce costs and pressures on the health services by creating safer and more walkable arctic communities. Here costs and benefits related to inactivity and injury are high and affect both the individual and society as a whole.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Physiotherapy Architectural Engineering
Research subject
Physiotherapy; Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69821 (URN)
Conference
The UArctic Congress 2018, Oulu & Helsinki, Finland, September 3-7 2018
Available from: 2018-06-24 Created: 2018-06-24 Last updated: 2018-06-27Bibliographically approved
Larsson, A. & Chapman, D. (2018). Outdoor human environments: the changing face of climatic barriers to soft mobility and gathering in winter communities. In: : . Paper presented at The 17th International Congress of Circumpolar Health, ICCH17, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 12-15 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Outdoor human environments: the changing face of climatic barriers to soft mobility and gathering in winter communities
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: In Arctic regions, generations have evolved lifestyles that fit with working and living with local conditions and seasonal variations. With emerging climate changes new risks appear and prior individual experiences based on preconceptions of risk may not remain valid. In everyday life, soft-mobility is required in varying conditions, such as ice and snow covered surfaces, darkness, extreme weather conditions. Inability to detect environmental clues to risk is a critical aspect for injury. Also, fear and activity avoidance lead to an increased risk of physical inactivity, a significant population health concern worldwide. Methods: An explorative survey, on subjective ratings of barriers to 1) soft mobility and 2) the use of outdoor public space in winter was performed. The EAMQ –Climate survey, tailored for climatic sensitive urban design research, include dimensions of distance, ambient and terrain, and a range of weather conditions found in winter, such as sun, coldness, wind, ice and ground surface properties (ice, snow, slush). Respondents were 1) 344 people in Northern Sweden, and 2) 361 people in Canada and Scandinavia. Results: The results highlight that rain, icy surfaces and darkness are today’s most significant barriers to soft-mobility in winter. For the use of outdoor public spaces, the most significant barriers were slushy and icy surfaces, rain precipitation and darkness. Conclusions: The traditional risks associated with outdoor activity in winter are changing with climate change. Future urban design and planning for safer and more walkable winter cities need to consider a more extensive pallet of weather conditions.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Architectural Engineering Physiotherapy
Research subject
Physiotherapy; Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69820 (URN)
Conference
The 17th International Congress of Circumpolar Health, ICCH17, Copenhagen, Denmark, August 12-15 2018
Note

Poster presentation. Abstract will be included in the abstract book

Available from: 2018-06-24 Created: 2018-06-24 Last updated: 2018-08-14Bibliographically approved
Chapman, D. (2018). The street, a quintessential social public space [Review]. Journal of Urban Design, 23(1), 163-164
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The street, a quintessential social public space
2018 (English)In: Journal of Urban Design, ISSN 1357-4809, E-ISSN 1469-9664, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 163-164Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2018
National Category
Social Sciences Architectural Engineering
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66133 (URN)10.1080/13574809.2018.1391452 (DOI)000429310900011 ()
Available from: 2017-10-14 Created: 2017-10-14 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Chapman, D. (2018). Urban design of winter cities: Winter season connectivity for soft mobility. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urban design of winter cities: Winter season connectivity for soft mobility
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

All across the world the form of the built environment is playing a crucial role as enabler or inhibitor for urban outdoor activity such as soft mobility. Urban form can make it more attractive for people to be mobile outdoors and playing a role in the public life, or it can put people off venturing outside. For winter cities, a question for urban design is how we can design environments that are attractive for outdoor activity in the winter season as well as summer and additionally how will climate change influence these aspects.

The reason for studying this is the importance of understanding how, in relation to urban form, weather, seasonal variations, and climate change influences human outdoor activity. In this study the focus on outdoor activity is problematised around the concern that people spend a low percentage of their time outdoors in winter conditions. For society, the problem is that this trend and the related low levels of physical activity are associated with a range of health issues.

To study this the main question for this research is what attracts and hinders soft mobility during the winter season and how can this knowledge underpin new considerations about urban design for connectivity in winter cities? To address this, the research methods focused on document studies, surveys, mental mapping, photo elicitation and semi-structured discussions.

The study works at three scientific levels. Firstly, it seeks to understand the interrelationship between the built environment and people’s outdoor activity in winter. Secondly, it attempts to understand how connectivity for soft mobility in winter is being affected by weather and climate change. Thirdly, it seeks new ways of thinking about how the urban form can be designed to increase outdoor soft mobility in winter.

The discussion and conclusions focused on the argument that in winter settlements, the winter season can alter spatial patterns and settlement organisation. Here it was argued that in these settlements the winter season can be an aspect of urban morphology and can be part of the process of shaping the public realm and its connectivity for soft mobility in winter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2018
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Urban form, urban design, seasonal climate variation, winter cities, climate change
National Category
Engineering and Technology Architectural Engineering
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70507 (URN)978-91-7790-189-1 (ISBN)978-91-7790-190-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-10-12, C305, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-08-21 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-09-20Bibliographically approved
Chapman, D., Nilsson, K., Larsson, A. & Rizzo, A. (2017). Climatic barriers to soft-mobility in winter: Lulea, Sweden as case study. Sustainable cities and society, 35, 574-580
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climatic barriers to soft-mobility in winter: Lulea, Sweden as case study
2017 (English)In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 35, p. 574-580Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Urban form can moderate the effects of weather on human movement. As such, the interrelationship between built environment, weather and human movement is a critical component of urban design. This paper explores the impacts of weather on non-motorised human movement (soft-mobility). Throughout we look at soft-mobility from the citizen’s perspective and highlight the barriers to soft-mobility in winter.

The aim of this study was to test the traditional pallet of winter city urban design considerations. Those of solar-access, wind and snow management and explore other weather and terrain conditions that act as barriers to soft-mobility in winter. This study is based on survey responses from 344 citizens in the sub-arctic area of Sweden. Outcomes from the research highlight that rain, icy surfaces and darkness are today’s most significant barriers to soft-mobility in winter.

Results from this study link changing barriers to soft-mobility in winter with climate change. The paper concludes that future urban design and planning for winter cities needs to consider a wider pallet of weather conditions, especially rain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Winter Cities, Resilience, Outdoor Activity, Walkability, Urban Microclimate
National Category
Social Sciences Architectural Engineering Physiotherapy
Research subject
Architecture; Physiotherapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65555 (URN)10.1016/j.scs.2017.09.003 (DOI)000415898200049 ()2-s2.0-85029311543 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-09-14 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-09-10 Created: 2017-09-10 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6957-0568

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