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Sandin, O., Rodriguez, J. M., Larour, P., Parareda, S., Frómeta, D., Hammarberg, S., . . . Casellas, D. (2024). A particle finite element method approach to model shear cutting of high-strength steel sheets. Computational Particle Mechanics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A particle finite element method approach to model shear cutting of high-strength steel sheets
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2024 (English)In: Computational Particle Mechanics, ISSN 2196-4378Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2024
National Category
Applied Mechanics Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-104322 (URN)10.1007/s40571-023-00708-5 (DOI)001156076500001 ()2-s2.0-85184256463 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funder: Horizon 2020 (101006844); RFCS (847213);

Available from: 2024-02-21 Created: 2024-02-21 Last updated: 2024-02-21
Parareda, S., Casellas, D., Mares, M. & Mateo, A. (2023). A damage-based uniaxial fatigue life prediction method for metallic materials. Materials & design, 231, Article ID 112056.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A damage-based uniaxial fatigue life prediction method for metallic materials
2023 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 231, article id 112056Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Determining the fatigue behaviour of metallic materials using standardised testing methods is costly and time-consuming. Therefore, several methods have been proposed to shorten the testing time and improve the fatigue optimisation of materials and components. This work presents a new fatigue testing method based on fatigue damage monitoring that allows determining the fatigue resistance in a short time and with few specimens. The presented method, named as the stiffness method, monitors the inelastic strains as an indicator of fatigue damage evolution. Strain measurements were carried out by digital image correlation techniques and showed to effectively follow damage evolution during fatigue tests. Results are convincing and more evident to obtain and discuss than other monitoring techniques, like temperature dissipation. In addition, the method overcomes the main limitations of the existing fast testing methods by avoiding the utilisation of complex apparatus, like infrared cameras or acoustic emission sensors. The approach has been validated in ten different metallic materials, as titanium and aluminium alloys, carbon steels, and stainless steels. The estimated fatigue limit was compared with values obtained following standardised tests, showing excellent agreement. Results allow pointing out the stiffness method as an efficient and effective tool for rapidly determining the fatigue behaviour of metallic materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Damage mechanics, Fatigue crack growth, Fatigue limit, Fatigue test methods
National Category
Applied Mechanics Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98896 (URN)10.1016/j.matdes.2023.112056 (DOI)2-s2.0-85161326279 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 101006844
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-06-26 (hanlid);

Funder: Fatigue4Light project and the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación (PID2019-106631GBC41)

Available from: 2023-06-26 Created: 2023-06-26 Last updated: 2023-06-26Bibliographically approved
Bemani, M., Parareda, S., Casellas, D., Frómeta, D., Mateo, A., Das, R. & Molotnikov, A. (2023). A Fast Method To Evaluate The Fatigue Resistance Of Additive Manufacturing Metal Specimens. In: Euro Powder Metallurgy 2023 (Euro PM2023) Proceedings: . Paper presented at Euro Powder Metallurgy 2023 Congress and Exhibition (Euro PM2023), Lisbon, Portugal, October 1-4, 2023. European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Fast Method To Evaluate The Fatigue Resistance Of Additive Manufacturing Metal Specimens
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2023 (English)In: Euro Powder Metallurgy 2023 (Euro PM2023) Proceedings, European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA) , 2023Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Powder Metallurgy Association (EPMA), 2023
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103427 (URN)10.59499/EP235764573 (DOI)2-s2.0-85180371698 (Scopus ID)
Conference
Euro Powder Metallurgy 2023 Congress and Exhibition (Euro PM2023), Lisbon, Portugal, October 1-4, 2023
Available from: 2024-01-02 Created: 2024-01-02 Last updated: 2024-01-02Bibliographically approved
Latorre, N., Casellas, D. & Costa, J. (2023). A mechanical interlocking joint between sheet metal and carbon fibre reinforced polymers through punching. In: Nader Asnafi, Lars-Erik Lindgren (Ed.), IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering: . Paper presented at 42nd Conference of the International Deep Drawing Research Group (IDDRG), June 19-22, 2023, Luleå, Sweden. Institute of Physics (IOP), 1284, Article ID 012001.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A mechanical interlocking joint between sheet metal and carbon fibre reinforced polymers through punching
2023 (English)In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering / [ed] Nader Asnafi, Lars-Erik Lindgren, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2023, Vol. 1284, article id 012001Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The joint between different lightweight materials plays a significant role in multi-material design of structural components for the automotive industry, aiming to reduce the vehicle's weight without compromising performance or safety. Yet, conventional mechanical joining technologies between metals and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) result in either a hole being drilled in the composite material, leading to damages which reduce the load bearing capacity, or the weight of the part being increased due to the incorporation of fasteners. At the same time, alternative mechanical joining methodologies involve complex and costly processing, hindering their industrial application. This work presents a new, simple, cost-efficient and non-weight penalizing mechanical joining technology between a metal sheet and fibre reinforced polymer prepregs consisting of a single-step punching process. In this process, the metallic sheet is completely perforated, while the prepreg is not. The punch pushes the carbon fibres through the metallic hole, with no, or minimal fibre breakage, generating a mechanical interlock. The shear strength and the absorbed energy of the co-cured joint increase with the incorporation of the mechanical interlocking joint.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2023
Series
IOP Conference Series-Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99481 (URN)10.1088/1757-899X/1284/1/012001 (DOI)001017824300001 ()
Conference
42nd Conference of the International Deep Drawing Research Group (IDDRG), June 19-22, 2023, Luleå, Sweden
Note

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-08-10 Created: 2023-08-10 Last updated: 2023-08-10Bibliographically approved
Latorre, N., Casellas, D. & Costa, J. (2023). A punching process to join metal sheets and fibre reinforced polymer composites by mechanical interlocking. Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, 175, Article ID 107744.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A punching process to join metal sheets and fibre reinforced polymer composites by mechanical interlocking
2023 (English)In: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 175, article id 107744Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the multi-material lightweight design of structural components for the automotive industry, the joint between different materials plays a significant role in reducing vehicle weight without compromising performance or safety. Conventional technologies to mechanically join metals and carbon fibre reinforced polymers result in either drilling a hole in the composite material or increasing the weight of the part because of the fasteners employed. This work presents a new, simple, cost-efficient and non-weight penalizing mechanical joining technology for metal sheets and fibre reinforced polymer prepregs. It consists of a single-step punching process where the metallic sheet is completely perforated, but the prepreg is not. The punch pushes the carbon fibres through the hole in the metal sheet with no or minimal fibre breakage, generating a mechanical interlock which, in turn, increases the shear strength and absorbed energy of the co-cured joint.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Hybrid joint, Punching, Metal, CFRP
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99775 (URN)10.1016/j.compositesa.2023.107744 (DOI)001078605200001 ()2-s2.0-85171560370 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-11-08 (marisr);

Full text license: CC BY-NC-ND

Available from: 2023-08-15 Created: 2023-08-15 Last updated: 2023-11-08Bibliographically approved
Parareda, S., Frómeta, D., Casellas, D., Gustafsson, D., Olsson, E., Munier, R. & Mateo, A. (2023). Fracture toughness to assess the effect of trimming on the fatigue behaviour of high-strength steels for chassis parts. In: Nader Asnafi, Lars-Erik Lindgren (Ed.), IOP Conference Series-Materials Science and Engineering: . Paper presented at 42nd Conference of the International Deep Drawing Research Group (IDDRG), June 19-22, 2023, Luleå, Sweden. Institute of Physics (IOP), 1284, Article ID 012073.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fracture toughness to assess the effect of trimming on the fatigue behaviour of high-strength steels for chassis parts
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2023 (English)In: IOP Conference Series-Materials Science and Engineering / [ed] Nader Asnafi, Lars-Erik Lindgren, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2023, Vol. 1284, article id 012073Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

High-strength steels are widely used in vehicle body-in-white, offering a good balance between crashworthiness and lightweight design. The increased requirements of heavier electric vehicles, in terms of fatigue resistance and crashworthiness, highlight that chassis parts have remarkable lightweighting potential. However, applying these grades in chassis parts is not straightforward, as the forming processes, like trimming, may introduce surface defects that compromise the fatigue resistance of the component. This work presents a material selection strategy for the applicability of high-strength steels in chassis parts of electric vehicles. The proposed approach allows the evaluation of the key parameters of the chassis parts in a simple way. The crash performance is evaluated through fracture toughness using the essential work of fracture (EWF) methodology. The method is applied to thin high-strength steel sheets employing double-edge notched tensile specimens (DENT). On the other hand, fatigue performance is investigated in terms of fatigue resistance for both notched and unnotched specimens. The results for different complex-phase and dual-phase steels show a good agreement between the EWF and the fatigue notch factor. The method could help apply high-strength steel to chassis parts, as designers will have a tool to focus the expensive fatigue tests on the best material candidates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2023
Series
IOP Conference Series-Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-98676 (URN)10.1088/1757-899X/1284/1/012073 (DOI)001017824300073 ()
Conference
42nd Conference of the International Deep Drawing Research Group (IDDRG), June 19-22, 2023, Luleå, Sweden
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, No 101006844 – Fatigue4Light project
Note

Funder: Catalan Government - ACCIÓ-Eurecat (Project PRIV - RapidFat)

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-06-21 Created: 2023-06-21 Last updated: 2023-08-22Bibliographically approved
Sandin, O., Rodriguez Prieto, J. M., Hammarberg, S. & Casellas, D. (2023). Numerical modelling of shear cutting using particle methods. In: Nader Asnafi, Lars-Erik Lindgren (Ed.), IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering: . Paper presented at 42nd Conference of the International Deep Drawing Research Group (IDDRG), June 19-22, 2023, Luleå, Sweden. Institute of Physics (IOP), 1284, Article ID 012048.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical modelling of shear cutting using particle methods
2023 (English)In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering / [ed] Nader Asnafi, Lars-Erik Lindgren, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2023, Vol. 1284, article id 012048Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The use of Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) allows for lightweighting of sheet steel components, with maintained structural integrity of the part. However, AHSS grades show limitations in edge crack resistance, primarily influenced by sheared edge damage introduced by the shear cutting process. Numerical modelling of the shear cutting process can aid the understanding of the sheared edge damage, thus avoiding unforeseen edge cracking in the subsequent cold forming. However, the extreme deformations of the blank during the shear cutting process are likely to cause numerical instabilities and divergence using conventional Finite Element modelling. To overcome these challenges, this work presents the use of a particle-based numerical modelling method called the Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM). PFEM accurately solves some of the challenges encountered in shear cutting with the standard Finite Element method, such as large deformation, angular distortions, generation of new boundaries and presents an efficient way of transfer historical information from the old to the new mesh, minimising the results diffusion. The present work shows prediction of cut edge morphology of AHSS using a PFEM modelling scheme, where the numerical results are verified against experiments. With these results, the authors show new possibilities to obtain accurate numerical prediction of the shear cutting process, which promotes further advances in prediction of edge damaged related to shear cutting of AHSS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2023
Series
IOP Conference Series-Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99470 (URN)10.1088/1757-899X/1284/1/012048 (DOI)001017824300048 ()
Conference
42nd Conference of the International Deep Drawing Research Group (IDDRG), June 19-22, 2023, Luleå, Sweden
Note

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-08-10 Created: 2023-08-10 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Gonçalves, L. A., Jiménez, S., Cornejo, A., Barbu, L. G., Parareda, S. & Casellas, D. (2023). Numerical simulation of a rapid fatigue test of high Mn-TWIP steel via a high cycle fatigue constitutive law. International Journal of Fatigue, 168, Article ID 107444.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical simulation of a rapid fatigue test of high Mn-TWIP steel via a high cycle fatigue constitutive law
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2023 (English)In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 168, article id 107444Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The generation of reliable data in the high cycle fatigue domain is crucial to support further metallurgic developments of fatigue optimized steel grades. Commonly employed for this aim, traditional standardized characterization methods are expensive and time-consuming. Thus, to circumvent these limitations, different accelerated fatigue testing methodologies have been proposed. In this work, the rapid fatigue test based on stiffness evolution is numerically reproduced using the finite element method for a specific grade of twinning-induced plasticity steel. A high cycle fatigue constitutive law grounded on the continuum damage mechanics framework is employed for this purpose. To adequately capture the material non-linear behavior observed in the experiments, a novel hardening–softening stress–strain curve for damage is proposed. The entire load history in the fatigue domain is modeled. A cycle-jump algorithm is used to improve the computational efficiency of the simulations. It is shown that a reduction of about 55% in the analysis elapsed time is reached by using this algorithm, while the result accuracy is maintained. Finally, the good agreement between numerical and experimental results, revealed by a maximum relative error smaller than 6.0%, evidences the potential of the present constitutive formulation to model the behavior of metals in the high cycle fatigue domain.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Ltd, 2023
Keywords
Advance in time strategy, Finite element method, High cycle fatigue simulation, Isotropic damage, Rapid fatigue test
National Category
Applied Mechanics Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-95290 (URN)10.1016/j.ijfatigue.2022.107444 (DOI)000909955900001 ()2-s2.0-85145646900 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Fatigue4Light (H2020-LC-GV-06-2020)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 101006844
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-01-18 (sofila);

Funder: Spanish Government (Spain FPU17/04196); Severo Ochoa Centre of Excellence (grant no. CEX2018-000797-S)

Available from: 2023-01-18 Created: 2023-01-18 Last updated: 2023-04-21Bibliographically approved
Garcia-Llamas, E., Pujante, J., Frómeta, D., Corón, D., Galceran, L., Golling, S., . . . Casellas, D. (2023). Optimization of Thick 22MnB5 Sheet Steel Part Performance through Laser Tempering. Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High Performance Steel (CHS² 2022), 30 May-2 June, 2022, Barcelona, Spain. Metals, 13(2), Article ID 396.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimization of Thick 22MnB5 Sheet Steel Part Performance through Laser Tempering
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2023 (English)In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 13, no 2, article id 396Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Press Hardening offers the possibility to obtain a wide range of mechanical properties through microstructural tailoring. This strategy has been successfully applied in thin sheet components, for instance, through differential cooling strategies. The application of these added value features to truck components implies adapting the process to the manufacture of thick sheet metal. This introduces an additional layer of complexity, but also opportunity, in a process where the final microstructure and, thus the mechanical performance is generated in the press shop. This work presents a study on optimizing the crash worthiness and impact energy absorption on a press hardened thick 22MnB5 steel sheet. Different microstructure design strategies have been studied, including ferrite-Pearlite (representative of a differential heating and austenitization strategy), in-die generated Bainite (representative of differential cooling) and Tempered Martensite (generated through laser tempering), keeping a fully hardened martensite as a reference condition. The material performance has been compared in terms of the monotonic properties, useful for anti-intrusion performance, and Essential Work of Fracture, a well-suited parameter to predict the crash failure behavior of high strength steels. The results show that laser tempering offers properties similar to Bainite-based microstructures and can be a successful replacement in components where the sheet thickness does not allow for the fine control of the in-die thermomechanical evolution.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
essential work of fracture, laser tempering, thick 22MnB5 sheet
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96184 (URN)10.3390/met13020396 (DOI)2-s2.0-85149639362 (Scopus ID)
Conference
8th International Conference on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High Performance Steel (CHS² 2022), 30 May-2 June, 2022, Barcelona, Spain
Note

Godkänd;2023;Nivå 0;2023-03-20 (joosat);Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Funder: Eureka-PID Worthtruck (PID, IDI-20171259); European Union’s Research Fund for Coal and Steel (No. 101034036–ToughSteel project)

Part of special Issue: Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High Performance Materials

Licens fullltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-03-20 Created: 2023-03-20 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Parareda, S., Frómeta, D., Casellas, D., Sieurin, H. & Mateo, A. (2023). Understanding the Fatigue Notch Sensitivity of High-Strength Steels through Fracture Toughness. Metals, 13(6), Article ID 1117.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the Fatigue Notch Sensitivity of High-Strength Steels through Fracture Toughness
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2023 (English)In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 13, no 6, article id 1117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study presents an innovative approach for selecting high-strength materials for fatigue dimensioning parts, considering both fracture toughness and fatigue performance. Warm and hot forming processes enable the construction of high-strength parts above 1000 MPa with complex geometries, making them suitable for lightweight chassis in automotive and freight applications. This research reveals that high-strength steels can experience up to a 40% reduction in fatigue performance due to manufacturing defects introduced during punching and trimming. Fracture toughness has been proposed as a good indicator of notch sensitivity, with a strong correlation of 0.83 between fracture toughness and fatigue notch sensitivity. Therefore, by combining fracture toughness measurements and fatigue resistance obtained through the rapid fatigue test, it becomes possible to quickly identify the most fatigue-resistant materials to deal with defects. Among the nine materials analysed, warm-formed steels show promising characteristics for lightweight chassis construction, with high fatigue resistance and fracture toughness exceeding the proposed fracture threshold of 250 kJ/m2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
chassis parts, fatigue, fracture toughness, high strength steel, sheared edge, warm forming steels
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99422 (URN)10.3390/met13061117 (DOI)001017143000001 ()2-s2.0-85163802823 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-08-10 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-08-10 Created: 2023-08-10 Last updated: 2023-08-10Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4720-7888

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