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Holmgren, C. (2022). Dialogue Lost? Teaching Musical Interpretation of Western Classical Music in Higher Education. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dialogue Lost? Teaching Musical Interpretation of Western Classical Music in Higher Education
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this thesis is to contribute to a better understanding of musical interpretation in teaching and learning Western classical music from both a teacher’s and student’s perspective within the context of piano main instrument teaching in higher music education in Sweden. The following research questions were formulated to fulfil this aim: first, how do teachers and students understand musical interpretation as educational content?; second, how do teachers and students understand teaching and learning of musical interpretation?; third and finally, how could verbal and musical dialogues be used for improving teaching and learning of musical interpretation?

The thesis employs an overarching hermeneutical framework and consists of three movements. Multiple forms of empirical material were created and collected to understand the complex phenomenon: semi-structured interviews (with and without stimulus) with teachers, students, and master class teacher; video and audio recordings of master class lessons and workshops; annotated scores; audio-recorded student performances and written instructions, written responses, and reflective one-minute papers. The empirical material was hermeneutically analysed and presented using poetical condensations, haiku formed poems, (auto)ethnodrama, and collaboratively negotiated student narratives.

The results outline that musical interpretation is neither verbalised nor negotiated. Furthermore, the students are held responsible for developing or already having the skills and capacities required for autonomy and a personal, authentic artistic voice, described as the desired learning outcome. That the students find their education backwards-looking and not preparing for a professional career in music could at least partly be due to the instrumental lessons being mainly devoted to demonstration and imitation without argumentative support. Moreover, as the teachers’ capacity to verbalise and engage in dialogical practices seems to be situationally bound and requiring questions, the possibilities to, on an organisational level, empower students to initiate and enter such dialogues should be further studied.

The created dialogical pedagogical situations, opening for musical and verbal collaboration, helped establish a shared understanding of musical interpretation and highlighted the difference between students’ intentions and performances. These situations offered collaborative explorations of what musical interpretation is, might be, and could be. I suggest that musical interpretation, including its philosophical and ethical aspects, is lifted as a general subject at a programme level, thus securing that it is dealt with adequately, not merely relying on individual teachers. Finally, methodological considerations and suggestions for further research are put forward.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2022
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Musical interpretation, higher music education, Western classical music, teaching and learning, one-to-one tuition, hermeneutics, poetry
National Category
Music Pedagogy
Research subject
Music Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88258 (URN)978-91-7790-991-0 (ISBN)978-91-7790-992-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-02-04, L165, Kunskapsallén 12, Piteå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-12-09 Created: 2021-12-09 Last updated: 2022-01-14Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, C. (2022). Empowering Piano Students of Western Classical Music: Challenging Teaching and Learning of Musical Interpretation in Higher Education. Music Education Research, 24(5), 574-587
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Empowering Piano Students of Western Classical Music: Challenging Teaching and Learning of Musical Interpretation in Higher Education
2022 (English)In: Music Education Research, ISSN 1461-3808, E-ISSN 1469-9893, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 574-587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to empower piano students and explore their understandings of how teaching and learning of musical interpretation of Western classical music could be developed to foster autonomy and a personal, authentic artistic voice. Two research questions were formulated: How have students experienced teaching and learning of musical interpretation? How do students envision a meaningful organisation of such teaching and learning? The empirical material, created during a participatory action research project with 4 piano students within an artistic bachelor program, was hermeneutically analysed, and narratives were created and twice negotiated with the students. Their education was described as backwards-looking and not preparing for autonomous learning and musicianship. In contrast, a meaningful organisation was envisioned as collaborative, dialogical, characterised by openness, humility, honesty, and mutual understanding where musical interpretation is viewed as a complex, ongoing, open-ended process, allowing for multiple, incompatible views, breaking from the master–apprentice model and the current restrictive ideology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2022
Keywords
musical interpretation, higher music education, collaborative learning, dialogue, laboratory, Western classical music
National Category
Music Pedagogy
Research subject
Musical Performance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88257 (URN)10.1080/14613808.2022.2101632 (DOI)000828582500001 ()2-s2.0-85134612761 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Luleå University of Technology
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-12-01 (sofila)

Available from: 2021-12-09 Created: 2021-12-09 Last updated: 2022-12-01Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, C. (2021). Giving and Developing Students’ Voice(s) in the Laboratory: Teaching and Learning of Musical Interpretation in Higher Education. In: : . Paper presented at Assessment symposium: On assessment, feedback and critique in music performance education, digital, September 13-14, 2021.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Giving and Developing Students’ Voice(s) in the Laboratory: Teaching and Learning of Musical Interpretation in Higher Education
2021 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Pedagogy Music
Research subject
Musical Performance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87077 (URN)
Conference
Assessment symposium: On assessment, feedback and critique in music performance education, digital, September 13-14, 2021
Available from: 2021-09-14 Created: 2021-09-14 Last updated: 2021-09-30Bibliographically approved
Friberg, U., Holmgren, C. & Östersjö, S. (2021). Lost in interpretation: Re-mixing the master-apprentice relation in the music conservatoire. Seismograf, 26
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lost in interpretation: Re-mixing the master-apprentice relation in the music conservatoire
2021 (English)In: Seismograf, ISSN 2245-4705, Vol. 26Article in journal (Refereed) [Artistic work] Published
Abstract [en]

This polyphonic audio paper addresses the relation between master and apprentice in the music conservatoire, and gives voice to the central human and non-human agents in this context. We aim to explore the power structures that constitute a structural framework for these relations, with regard to the agency with which students shape their individual interpretations, and therefore also to the role of imitation in instrumental music teaching. Master classes have arguably been seen as the pinnacle of the master–apprentice tradition, and have had a central role within higher education in Western classical music. It has regularly been claimed that such classes are effective for student development (see Hanken, 2008; 2011; Hanken and Long, 2012; Hanken, 2015; 2016; 2017) although, until recently, research on master classes has been quite sparse (see Hanken, 2008; 2011).

Results from a qualitative study of teaching and learning of musical interpretation in a master class setting—first articulated in the form of an ethnodrama (Holmgren, 2018; 2020; Nguyễn and Östersjö, 2020; Saldaña, 1998; 2003; 2005; 2011; Salvatore, 2018), written by Holmgren—constitutes the point of departure for the audio paper. Our staging of Holmgren’s ethnodrama as a Hörspiel constitutes an artistic research process, through dramatical and musical composition (Olofsson, 2018). The research process originated in sound, as well as in questions related to musical performance; ultimately, through the many layers of analysis and artistic production, the final outcomes are again manifest in sound. Originating in music education research, the study seeks a better understanding of how the dynamics between teacher, student and music institution can be better utilised in curriculum development. Hence, the audio paper, and the Hörspiel that it contains, constitutes a central result of the study (see further Holmgren, 2020) in artistic form as a sonic and multivocal artefact. We ultimately propose that the future for instrumental teaching in the conservatoire lies in the creation of situations that allow for sharing experiences of performative knowledge. Hereby, teacher and student can work together towards the goal of fostering an individual musician’s voice (Gorton and Östersjö, 2019), highlighting the importance of personal autonomy, situatedness, and an analytical awareness of institutional and societal power structures. Hence, the study points to perspectives that may contribute to curriculum development in higher music education, specifically with regard to instrumental music teaching.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Foreningen Seismograf/DMT, 2021
Keywords
musical interpretation, master–apprentice relation, higher music education, power structures, ethnodrama, Hörspiel
National Category
Music
Research subject
Musical Performance; Performing Arts
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83492 (URN)10.48233/SEISMOGRAF2605 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 1;2021-04-12 (alebob)

Available from: 2021-04-06 Created: 2021-04-06 Last updated: 2021-08-16Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, C. (2020). Listening Upstream: Against the Quietness of a Single Musical Interpretation. In: : . Paper presented at IASPM Norden conference: Music in the Age of Streaming - Nordic perspectives, Piteå, Sweden (Digital), June 16-17, 2020.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Listening Upstream: Against the Quietness of a Single Musical Interpretation
2020 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Keywords
streaming music, listening, hermeneutics, musical interpretation, higher music education
National Category
Music
Research subject
Musical Performance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-79477 (URN)
Conference
IASPM Norden conference: Music in the Age of Streaming - Nordic perspectives, Piteå, Sweden (Digital), June 16-17, 2020
Available from: 2020-06-18 Created: 2020-06-18 Last updated: 2021-03-31Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, C. (2020). Musikfilosofi på svenska: Patrik Andersson, 2020. Musik, mening och värde. Filosofiska perspektiv på en värld av eget slag. Möklinta: Gidlunds. 264 s. ISBN 978-91-7844-418-2. [Review]. Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, 102
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Musikfilosofi på svenska: Patrik Andersson, 2020. Musik, mening och värde. Filosofiska perspektiv på en värld av eget slag. Möklinta: Gidlunds. 264 s. ISBN 978-91-7844-418-2.
2020 (Swedish)In: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, ISSN 0081-9816, E-ISSN 2002-021X, Vol. 102Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svenska Samfundet för musikforskning, 2020
National Category
Music
Research subject
Musical Performance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-82095 (URN)
Note

Godkänd;2021;Nivå 0;2021-01-07 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-12-22 Created: 2020-12-22 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, C. (2020). Response Guided Workshops on Musical Interpretation: A Participatory Action Research Project Within Higher Music Education in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at 25th conference of Nordic Network for Research in Music Education, March 2-5, 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Response Guided Workshops on Musical Interpretation: A Participatory Action Research Project Within Higher Music Education in Sweden
2020 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Keywords
musical interpretation, higher music education, Western art music, prepared response, workshop, peer learning
National Category
Music
Research subject
Music Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-79476 (URN)
Conference
25th conference of Nordic Network for Research in Music Education, March 2-5, 2020, Copenhagen, Denmark
Available from: 2020-06-18 Created: 2020-06-18 Last updated: 2023-02-17Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, C. (2020). Response guided workshops on musical interpretation: Developing a model for participatory instrumental teaching within higher music education. In: Heidi Partti, Leah Coutts (Ed.), Proceedings of the 23rd International Seminar of the ISME Commission on the Education of the Professional Musician (CEPROM): Ethics and Inclusion in the Education of Professional Musicians. Paper presented at 23rd International Seminar of the ISME Commission on the Education of the Professional Musician (CEPROM), 29-31 July, 2020, Virtual seminar (pp. 44-64). International Society for Music Education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Response guided workshops on musical interpretation: Developing a model for participatory instrumental teaching within higher music education
2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Seminar of the ISME Commission on the Education of the Professional Musician (CEPROM): Ethics and Inclusion in the Education of Professional Musicians / [ed] Heidi Partti, Leah Coutts, International Society for Music Education , 2020, p. 44-64Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Earlier research indicates that the conservatoire tradition still influences higher music education. In the context of Western classical music, it has been criticised for unreflected use of the master–apprentice model, e.g., emphasising imitative aspects of one-to-one tuition, favouring technical over interpretive aspects of musicianship, and lack of systematic development of students’ autonomy.

Research on group learning of Western classical music within higher music education has highlighted that although students say that group lessons are valuable, they often do not realise the inherent learning potential. Also, students need instructions for how to prepare (and actually prepare) to be able to contribute actively during lessons.

Studies of text seminars have shown that student activity, quality of response, ownership of learning, and participation on equal terms can increase through using response models. Although growing attention is given to collaborative learning within higher music education, there is a need to better understand how learning of musical interpretation could be developed using such models.

This paper aims to study how response guided workshops can be arranged to improve piano students’ learning of musical interpretation of Western classical music. During autumn 2019, five workshops were conducted with a group of four piano students from the bachelor programme at one institution within higher music education in Sweden. In the response model used, students, one week before the workshop, scanned their scores, audio recorded their performances, described where they were in their interpretational process, and included questions directing the desired response. All participants shared their written response, and students beforehand selected topics to focus on during the workshop.

The produced empirical material consists of:

  • scanned scores, audio recorded performances, and written instructions;
  • participants’ written responses;
  • transcriptions of four workshops;
  • reflective one-minute papers written at the end of each workshop; and
  • the researcher’s field notes and reflections.

The preliminary findings indicate the importance of communicative aspects and how a response model is implemented as challenging and changing established educational traditions are complicated. The students showed a limited capacity for verbalising their thoughts about musical interpretation, selecting topics to focus on during workshops, and tended to focus on details. During the study, the students’ understanding of musical interpretation seemed to increase, and they stated that such workshops should be included in the curriculum. Consequently, further developing such workshops may contribute to increasing student autonomy and responsibility, equal participation, and multivoicedness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Society for Music Education, 2020
Keywords
musical interpretation, higher music education, Western classical music, prepared response, workshop, peer learning
National Category
Music
Research subject
Musical Performance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-80281 (URN)
Conference
23rd International Seminar of the ISME Commission on the Education of the Professional Musician (CEPROM), 29-31 July, 2020, Virtual seminar
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-922303-04-2

Available from: 2020-11-30 Created: 2020-11-30 Last updated: 2021-12-09Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, C. (2020). The conditions for learning musical interpretation in one-to-one piano tuition in higher music education. Nordic Research in Music Education, 1(1), 103-131
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The conditions for learning musical interpretation in one-to-one piano tuition in higher music education
2020 (English)In: Nordic Research in Music Education, E-ISSN 2703-8041, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 103-131Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research has indicated that one-to-one teaching in higher music education in Western classical music typically favours technical over interpretive aspects of musicianship, and imitation of the teacher's rather than the student's explorative interpretation. The aim of the present study is to investigate students' and teachers' understandings of how musical interpretation of Western classical music is learned in this context. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with six piano students and four teachers in Sweden were conducted and hermeneutically analysed using haiku poems and poetical condensations. The analysis found that the conditions for learning musical interpretation centred upon students achieving a high level of autonomy, as affected by three key aspects of teaching and learning: (1) the student’s and the teacher's understandings of what musical interpretation is, (2) the student's experience of freedom of interpretation as acknowledged by the teacher, and (3) (expectations of) the student's explorative approach. As none of these aspects were reported as being explicitly addressed during lessons, there might be a need for both teachers and students to verbalise them more clearly to support piano students' development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cappelen Damm AS, 2020
Keywords
musical interpretation, higher music education, one-to-one tuition, Western classical music, poetry
National Category
Music
Research subject
Musical Performance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-81713 (URN)10.23865/nrme.v1.2635 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 1;2021-01-13 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-11-30 Created: 2020-11-30 Last updated: 2022-12-08Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, C. (2020). The Sorcerer’s Apprentice’s apprentices: A critical analysis of teaching and learning of musical interpretation in a piano master class. Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, 102, 37-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Sorcerer’s Apprentice’s apprentices: A critical analysis of teaching and learning of musical interpretation in a piano master class
2020 (English)In: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, ISSN 0081-9816, E-ISSN 2002-021X, Vol. 102, p. 37-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Master classes, arguably the pinnacle of the master–apprentice tradition, have been common within higher education of Western classical music. Although claimed to be effective, teaching and learning of musical interpretation in this setting are not well-researched. One seven day long piano master class in the form of a self-contained university course was critically analysed from a hermeneutic perspective and philosophically discussed using three components from the ancient dialogue Philopseudes concerning the learning of magic as well as my experiences of apprenticeship. The empirical material consisted of observations of and field notes from 18 master class lessons; six video-stimulated interviews with two students, master class teacher, and the students’ regular teacher; qualitative semi-structured follow-up interviews with two students and the students’ regular teacher; and scanned versions of the students’ scores. The analysis indicated that the students’ learning of musical interpretation is hindered owing to the master’s beliefs and actions; the lessons centre on the master’s privileged access to secret knowledge mediated in writing; and, the metaphors of gods, ghosts, and Weiheküsse, can be used to understand the master’s storytelling and teaching. I suggest re-negotiating the master class and the required competencies of teachers for such classes within higher music education. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svenska Samfundet för musikforskning, 2020
Keywords
higher music education, Western classical music, musical interpretation, master class, master– apprentice tradition, Philopseudes, magic, hermeneutics
National Category
Music Pedagogy
Research subject
Musical Performance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-82091 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 1;2021-04-20 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-12-21 Created: 2020-12-21 Last updated: 2023-08-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8514-5422

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