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Allan, J. (2019). Evaluation of Live Loudness Meters. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Live Loudness Meters
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Discrepancies in loudness (i.e. sensation of audio intensity) has been of great concern within the broadcast community. For television broadcast, disparities in audio levels have been rated the number one cause to annoyance by the audience. Another problem area within the broadcast and music industry is the loudness war. The phenomenon is about the strive to produce audio content to be at least as loud or louder to any other audio content that it can easily be compared with. This mindset, when deciding for audio level treatment, inevitably leads to an increase in loudness over time, and also, as a technical consequence, a decrease of utilized dynamics. The effects of the loudness war is present in both terrestrial radio transmissions as well as in music production and in music distribution platforms.

The two problems, discrepancies in loudness and the loudness war, both emanate from the same source; regulations of audio levels and the design of measurement gear have not been amended to cope with modern production techniques. At the time when the work on this thesis started, the ruling technical recommendations for audio level alignment were based on peak measurement. This measured entity has poor correspondence to loudness. To counter the above described problems, the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has developed new recommendations for audio alignment, EBU R 128 and ITU-R BS.1770. The new definitions for loudness measurement constitutes simplified models on the human perception of audio intensity. When using the new recommendations in production, the problems have been shown to diminish.

For an engineer in a live broadcast scenario, measurement equipment also need to be updated in real-time to illustrate a time-variant loudness of the signal. EBU and ITU also has regulated how this type of measurement gear should behave. EBU Tech 3341 and ITU-R BS.1771 define properties for live loudness meters. These recommendations has since the time of publication been implemented in measurement equipment from manufacturers and become available in production facilities.

This thesis investigates the conceptions that have led up to the present recommendations for live loudness meters. It maps out the (at the time) present ways to evaluate the same. Emanating from this knowledge, a new methodology to evaluate loudness meters is proposed that combines qualities from former methods to achieve an alternative balance between ecological validity and control in the experiment design. The methodology includes a procedure to capture data from engineers’ actions and the resulting audio levels from simulated broadcast scenarios. The methodology also incorporates a way to process this type of data into different parameters to be more accessible for interpretation. It presents an approach to model the data, by the use of linear mixed models, to describe different effects in the parameters as the result of the meters’ characteristics. In addition, a review on publications that examine the engineers’ own requests for beneficial qualities in a loudness meter has been condensed and revised into a set of meter criteria that specifically is designed to be applied on the outcome of the mixed models. The outcome of the complete evaluation yields statements on meter quality that are different and complementary to formerly proposed methods for meter evaluation.

The methodology has been applied in two different studies, which also are accounted for in the thesis. The conclusions from these studies has led to an increased understanding of how to design live loudness meters to be satisfactory tools to the engineer. Examples of findings are: the effect of the speed of the meter, as being controlled by one or several time constants, on the readability of the meter and the dispersion in output levels – some tested candidates, with higher speed than the present recommended ones, has been shown to be adequate as tools; the three-second integration time has been shown to generate a smaller dispersion in output levels than the 400 ms integration time; the effect of the gate in BS.1771 on the resulting output levels– the gate generally leading to an increase in output levels. The acquired knowledge may be used to improve the present recommendations for audio level alignment, from EBU and ITU.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2019
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
loudness, loudness metering, live loudness meter, loudness meter, audio level alignment, R 128, hörstyrka, mätning av hörstyrka, loudnessmätare, hörstyrkemätare, nivåjustering, R 128, upplevd ljudnivå
National Category
Media Engineering Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72465 (URN)978-91-7790-296-6 (ISBN)978-91-7790-297-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-03-01, L165, Snickargatan 20, Piteå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Interreg Nord
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-05 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Allan, J. & Berg, J. (2019). Evaluation of the Momentary Time Scale for Live Loudness Metering. Journal of The Audio Engineering Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the Momentary Time Scale for Live Loudness Metering
2019 (English)In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 0004-7554Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2019
Keywords
loudness, loudness meter, loudness metering, live loudness metering, audio level alignment, perceived audio intensity, R 128, loudness, loudnessmätning, loudnessmätare, hörstyrka, mätning av hörstyrka, hörstyrkemätare, ljudnivåmätning, upplevd ljudnivå, upplevd hörstyrka, R 128
National Category
Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72481 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-01-07
Allan, J. & Berg, J. (2018). Evaluating Live Loudness Meters from Engineers' Actions and Resulting Output Levels. Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, 66(7-8), 556-577
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating Live Loudness Meters from Engineers' Actions and Resulting Output Levels
2018 (English)In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 0004-7554, Vol. 66, no 7-8, p. 556-577Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Qualities of loudness meters were investigated by running a simulated live broadcast show, mixed by subjects with different degrees of audio engineering experience. The subject-induced fader movements and the resulting output levels were analyzed using a general linear mixed model and then interpreted according to a proposed set of quality criteria for live loudness meters. The results show that, for subparts of the program. meters with slower integration lime caused less dispersion of the resulting output levels and a smaller error to a given target level. The varying integration tunes of the meters did not cause any significant differences in reaction time. It is concluded that this type of data may be used in evaluation of loudness meters and the specific study provides insight into the effect of time scales and meter implementation for EBU R 128-compliant meters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2018
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71367 (URN)10.17743/jaes.2018.0029 (DOI)000447290400004 ()2-s2.0-85052757145 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-10-29 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2019-09-16Bibliographically approved
(2018). We're On Our Way: The Zion Care Gospel Singers with Isabella Lundgren. Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>We're On Our Way: The Zion Care Gospel Singers with Isabella Lundgren
2018 (English)Artistic output (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Musikproduktion med Isabella Lundgren och Zion Care Gospel Singers.

ISBN/EAN: 7330658514349

Abstract [en]

It only takes but one step on African soil to know you are on sacred ground. The vastness of the land reminds me of the endlessness of our universe. The arching trees reaching for the sky, of our will to explore it. The roaring wildlife, that it is from nature we are truly sprung. 

Africa - the cradle of civilization - is a remarkable continent with remarkable people. The story of this album takes place here. Specifically, in the small village of Shangarai in Tanzania. 

Like all good ideas this began as an inconceivable one, impossible to realize. Yet it took form and became a reality. A reality you are holding in your hands. 

The premise is this: 26 children from Tanzania that have never had a voice or music lesson in their life, will meet five professional musicians and teachers from Sweden to record an album together. 

The children all reside at an orphanage called the Zion Care center and they have all lived lives shaped by loss. Despite this they carry themselves with a gratitude and grace that is rare to find. It only took us five minutes to fall in love. 

Electricity is sparse and to find a location to record an actual album was a difficult task, but due to the generosity of the locals we managed to make it happen. Time is relative in Africa - but at the same time nothing is impossible. 

We made this album because we believe in the power of creativity, and especially in music. These children taught us that it is a truly transcendent and transformative endeavor to not only pursue and practice music, but to live it. That's what they do, they live music. Every spare moment they sing, they dance, and they rejoice in music. It is not about creating a perfect performance. It is a way to communicate. 

I hope you will enjoy this album and the journey it will take you on. It conveys the message that it is not what you have that puts value to your life, it is how you live it. 

With Love, Isabella Lundgren

Place, publisher, year, pages
Stockholm: , 2018
Keywords
Jazz, Gospel
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71950 (URN)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 1;2019-01-15 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved
Ferm-Almqvist, C., Ekberg, N., Leijonhufvud, S., Allan, J. & Burkhart, P. (2017). Evolving Bildung in the Nexus of Streaming Services, Art andUsers : Spotify as a Case . In: : . Paper presented at Femtonde nationella musikforskningskonferensen Musikforskning idag!, Piteå, 12-14 juni 2017 (pp. 20-21).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolving Bildung in the Nexus of Streaming Services, Art andUsers : Spotify as a Case
Show others...
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The changed landscape of media, with digital distribution as a keyfactor, creates new conditions for people’s access to cultural expressions. This has mainly been studied through technical and financial perspectives, focusing on the record industry, file sharing, human–technology interaction, and click frequency. New questionsare necessary for an understanding of what functions streamed musicand art expressions can have in people’s lives, and how companies such as Spotify relate to these functions.The aim of the study is to explore Bildung in the nexus of streaming services, art and users, with Spotify as a case study. Research questions: How and to what extent do technical, legal, economic, and ethical factors control possibilities for meaningmaking in the interaction between streaming media such as Spotify, arts, and human beings? How does the quality of art/music distributed through streaming influence opportunites for Bildung? How do users make meaning in the specific contexts? To what extent is the user involved in her own Bildung via the algorithms making up the participation?

To achieve this aim and address the research questions an interdisciplinary study is needed, which makes it possible to understand the complex phenomena of a streaming media platform in relation to Bildung. Technicians and researchers from the humanities and social sciences will approach the research problem and form a holistic understanding of streaming media in relation to human beings, art, and technology. Hence, combinations of methodological approaches are required. Big-data analysis will provide access to how varied demographics use Spotify. The Spotify users’ activities, experiences of streaming media interactions, and meaning-making will be accessed through qualitative netnographical observations, shadowing, and interviews. Sound quality analysis will clarify what aesthetic values are involved in the most appreciated listening experiences, which will be related to Bildung.

National Category
Pedagogy Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Music Education; Audio Technology; Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63739 (URN)
Conference
Femtonde nationella musikforskningskonferensen Musikforskning idag!, Piteå, 12-14 juni 2017
Available from: 2017-06-05 Created: 2017-06-05 Last updated: 2018-01-25Bibliographically approved
Allan, J. (2016). Emil och Ida i Lönneberga. SF Film
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emil och Ida i Lönneberga
2016 (Swedish)Other (Other academic) [Artistic work]
Abstract [sv]

En tecknad film skapad av Pennfilm med Per Åhlin, Alicja Björk och Lasse Persson som regissörer. Filmen består av tre historier av Astrid Lindgren med karaktärerna Emil och Ida i Lönneberga. Astrids egen röst används. 

Filmen är producerad av Filmlance International AB och fick 8 miljoner i produktionsstöd från Svenska Filminstitutet. Den distribueras av SF Film och finns tillgänglig på flera plattformar. Första gången var biopremiär 25 december 2013. Den senaste plattformen var visning i SVT med påföljande tid tillgänglig i SVT Play under hösten 2016. Både tecknandet och inspelningen av musiken gjordes på ett äldre traditionellt sätt. D.v.s. alla bildrutor har tecknats för hand. Musiken har spelats in i akustisk studio under Georg Riedels ledning med hjälp musiker och musiktekniker. Till den större delen har musikernas insatser skett tillsammans och utan pålägg. Därefter har musiktekniker och Georg Riedel mixat materialet för filmmediet. 

Georg Riedel - musik

Jon Allan - ljudproducent/ljudtekniker

Filmlance International AB - producent

Pennfilm - teckning av film

SF film - distributör

Place, publisher, year, pages
SF Film, 2016
Keywords
Astrid Lindgren, score music, music recording, music mixing, Astrid Lindgren, filmmusik, musikinspelning, musikmixning
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60827 (URN)
Available from: 2016-11-30 Created: 2016-11-30 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Allan, J. & Berg, J. (2015). Evaluation criteria for live loudness meters (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), 137th Audio Engineering Society Convention 2014: Los Angeles, California, USA 9-12 October 2014.. Paper presented at Audio Engineering Society Convention : 09/10/2014 - 12/10/2014 (pp. 866-878). Red Hook: Curran Associates, Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation criteria for live loudness meters
2015 (English)In: 137th Audio Engineering Society Convention 2014: Los Angeles, California, USA 9-12 October 2014., Red Hook: Curran Associates, Inc., 2015, p. 866-878Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As a response to discrepancies in loudness levels in broadcast, the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union and the European Broadcasting Union state that audio levels should be regulated based on loudness measurement. These recommendations differ regarding the definition of meter ballistics for live loudness meters, and this paper seeks to identify possible additional information, needed to attain a higher conformity between the recommendations. This work suggests that the qualities we seek in a live loudness meter could be more differentiated for different time scales (i.e. Momentary and Short-term that is defined by two different integration times), and therefore also should be evaluated by different evaluation criteria.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Red Hook: Curran Associates, Inc., 2015
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28217 (URN)1f105230-8b08-418e-97ad-72213f136979 (Local ID)9781634397483 (ISBN)1f105230-8b08-418e-97ad-72213f136979 (Archive number)1f105230-8b08-418e-97ad-72213f136979 (OAI)
Conference
Audio Engineering Society Convention : 09/10/2014 - 12/10/2014
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20150824 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2019-01-05Bibliographically approved
Allan, J. & Berg, J. (2014). Evaluation of loudness meters using parameterization of fader movements (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), Audio Engineering Society Convention 135: . Paper presented at Audio Engineering Society Convention : 17/10/2013 - 20/10/2013 (pp. 652-662). : Audio Engineering Society, Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of loudness meters using parameterization of fader movements
2014 (English)In: Audio Engineering Society Convention 135, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2014, p. 652-662Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The EBU recommendation R 128 regarding loudness normalization, is now generally accepted and countries in Europe are adopting the new recommendation. There is now need to know more about how and when to use the different meter modes, Momentary and Short term, proposed in R 128, as well as to understand how different implementations of R 128 in audio level meters affect the engineers' actions. A method is tentatively proposed for evaluating the performance of audio level meters in live broadcasts. The method was used to evaluate different meter implementations, three of them conforming to the recommendation from EBU, R 128. In an experiment, engineers adjusted audio levels in a simulated live broadcast show and the resulting fader movements were recorded. The movements were parameterized into "Fader movement", "Adjustment time", "Overshoot", etc. Results show that the proposed parameters produced significant differences caused by the meters and that the experience of the engineer operating the fader is a significant factor

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2014
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-27749 (URN)14947d71-d2fa-430c-b522-85af46ad4ae2 (Local ID)14947d71-d2fa-430c-b522-85af46ad4ae2 (Archive number)14947d71-d2fa-430c-b522-85af46ad4ae2 (OAI)
Conference
Audio Engineering Society Convention : 17/10/2013 - 20/10/2013
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20140403 (johsod)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2019-01-05Bibliographically approved
Allan, J. & Berg, J. (2013). Audio level alignment: Evaluation method and performance of EBU R 128 by analyzing fader movements (ed.). In: (Ed.), (Ed.), 134th Audio Engineering Society Convention 2013: Rome; Italy; 4 May 2013 - 7 May 2013. Paper presented at Audio Engineering Society Convention : 04/05/2013 - 07/05/2013 (pp. 724-735). Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Audio level alignment: Evaluation method and performance of EBU R 128 by analyzing fader movements
2013 (English)In: 134th Audio Engineering Society Convention 2013: Rome; Italy; 4 May 2013 - 7 May 2013, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2013, p. 724-735Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A method is proposed for evaluating audio meters in terms of how the engineer acts with the fader as dependent on the meter and corresponding recommendation at hand. The proposed method is used to evaluate different meter implementations, three conforming to the recommendation EBU R 128 and one conforming to EBU Tech 3205-E. In an experiment, engineers participated in a simulated live broadcast show and the resulting fader movements were recorded. The movements were analyzed in terms of different characteristics: Mean fader level, Fader variability and Fader movement. Significant effects were found showing that engineers do act differently depending on the meter and recommendation at hand. The method was found useful and may complement other methods to give more perspectives when evaluating audio meters

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2013
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-32865 (URN)77fbc551-04b6-4e1a-8d8c-935f4a1c61e3 (Local ID)9781627485715 (ISBN)77fbc551-04b6-4e1a-8d8c-935f4a1c61e3 (Archive number)77fbc551-04b6-4e1a-8d8c-935f4a1c61e3 (OAI)
Conference
Audio Engineering Society Convention : 04/05/2013 - 07/05/2013
Note
Godkänd; 2013; 20130913 (andbra)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2019-01-05Bibliographically approved
(2013). Trägen het. Paper presented at . Västerbottens museum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trägen het
2013 (Swedish)Other (Other academic) [Artistic work]
Abstract [sv]

Dansföreställningen ”Trägen het” i OlofsforsInför 2014 har EU utsett Umeå som kulturhuvudstad i Europa, vilket innebär att Västerbottens museum erhållit medel från bl.a. EUs regionala kulturfond i ett tvåårigt projekt med namnet ”Västerbotten berättar”.Som en del av projektet gjordes en dansföreställning som genomfördes i Olofsfors sommaren 2013, under ledning av den nationellt och internationellt kända dansaren och koreografen Åsa N Åström och konstnären Håkan Brink. Syftet med projektet var att med hjälp av dans, konst, musik och projektioner arbeta med Olofsfors bruks historia och berättelser på ett nyskapande och publikt sätt.För att genomföra föreställningen gav Åsa N Åström och Håkan Brink i uppdrag till Jon Allan, doktorand i ljudteknik och kompositör samt Lars Hallberg, lektor i ljudteknik och ljud design, att komponera och framföra musik till föreställningen ”Trägen het”.Jon Allan och Lars Hallberg arbetade med kompositionen genom att spela in ljudmiljöer och ljudeffekter från platsen Olofsfors som sedan komponerades till 4 musikstycken, totalt cirka 25 minuter musik samt cirka 40 minuter ljuddesignade atmosfärer.Hela föreställningen dokumenterades även av videokonstnären Jan Duvfa, och planer finns att göra en produktion av materialet som skall publiceras i olika TV-bolag, både nationellt och internationellt.Arrangeras av Västerbottens musem med stöd av Europeiska regionala utvecklingsfonden.

Place, publisher, year, pages
Västerbottens museum, 2013
Keywords
Aesthetic subjects - Music, Konstnärligt arbete, Estetiska ämnen - Musikvetenskap
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-33874 (URN)ddf44ef1-3b98-42c3-9ed9-a0c2d510430a (Local ID)ddf44ef1-3b98-42c3-9ed9-a0c2d510430a (Archive number)ddf44ef1-3b98-42c3-9ed9-a0c2d510430a (OAI)
Note

Godkänd; 2013; 20131202 (lara)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0490-0394

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