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Khan, S. A. (2019). Effects of top-of-rail friction modifiers on the friction, wear and cracks of railway rails. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of top-of-rail friction modifiers on the friction, wear and cracks of railway rails
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Effekter av top-of-rail friktionsmodifierare på friktion, slitage och sprickor på järnvägsräls
Abstract [en]

The railway is an economical and environmentally friendly mode of transport for long distances and heavy loads. The demands on the operators are increasing with increased competition in the market, and therefore they are currently demanding more track capacity. In the short term, the existing network is expected to deliver the increased capacity. In order to achieve increased capacity without introducing double track, either the axle load or the number of trains (i.e. the annual gross tonnage) needs to be increased, which will decrease the life of the rail and thus increase the maintenance cost. To increase the lifetime of the rails without compromising with regard to the axle load and speed, one must increase the strength of the rails, decrease the traction forces between the rails and wheels, or introduce a third body with anti-wear and anti-crack properties that can reduce the wear and rolling contact fatigue (RCF) without reducing the traction forces below the safety limit.

The traction forces depend on several variables, for example third bodies in the wheel-rail interface, the train dynamics, the wheel and rail profiles, etc. Third bodies in the wheel-rail interface are one of the important influencing factors. The additive third bodies with anti-wear properties and friction reduction capabilities reduces both the wear and the RCF. However, a friction coefficient in the wheel tread and the top of the rail below 0.3 can cause slippage and a long braking distance. To reduce the degree of utilised friction to a value close to 0.35 from dry conditions with a value of 0.55, and thereby reduce the wear, a product known as top-of-rail friction modifier (TOR-FM) was developed in North America and presented in 2003 at the heavy haul conference. The TOR-FM manufacturers claim that their products provide a fixed range of friction coefficients (μ) and Kalker’s coefficients in the wheel-rail interface. Kalker’s coefficient considers the tendency of creepage between the rail and wheel as a function of the traction forces at lower creepage levels. Field and laboratory tests in the USA, Canada and China have determined the benefits of using friction control products, which include the reduction of RCF, wear, corrugation, bogie hunting, noise, and fuel consumption without any side effects. In contrast, researchers at Luleå University of Technology (LTU) have found that such products in certain conditions give unacceptably low friction that can cause long braking distances and slippage. Initial measurements performed using a wayside TOR-FM system on the Iron Ore Line (IOL – “Malmbanan” in Swedish) could not find any benefits of implementing such systems.

Trafikverket is considering the implementation of the TOR-FM technology on the IOL. Directly implementing such technology can be inappropriate and expensive, because the reliability of a TOR-FM system has never been assessed for the conditions of the IOL. The IOL is the northernmost railway line in Sweden and is experiencing the problem of RCF, especially on its curves. This railway line is a single track and is mainly utilised by the ore freight trains operated by the Swedish mining company LKAB. The freight trains run by LKAB have an axle load of 30 tonnes, which is the heaviest in Europe. At present LKAB is planning to increase the axle load of their heavy haul trains to 32.5 tonnes, which will increase the RCF and wear issues.

The present research investigated the effects of TOR-FMs using computer-based simulations, laboratory tests and field tests. The results from all the tests and simulations were used to calculate the life cycle cost of wayside and on-board systems. The simulation results have shown that by reducing the friction, the RCF can be reduced. This reduction in the RCF is greater on narrow curves than on larger curves as the traction forces decrease with an increase in the curve radius. Curves with a radius larger than m are not prone to RCF. The damage index method used in the simulation has also shown that on circular curves with a radius smaller than 300 m, the so-called “magic wear” rate can be achieved. Magic wear means that the wear rate due to normal operation is equal to the crack generation rate. The field results obtained using a handheld tribometer have shown that by using a TOR-FM, both the wear and the friction coefficients can be reduced. The content of the TOR-FM can have a significant effect on the carry distance and, generally, non-drying FMs have a longer carry distance. Excessive use of TOR-FM may cause unacceptably low friction and a high operational cost, and only result in an insignificant increase in the carry distance. In addition, it was also concluded that in the case of the wayside system during extreme winters, the equipment could have maintenance issues and thus a high operational cost. The on-board system is an economical alternative to the wayside system, as it has lower operation and maintenance costs. The results have also shown that snow and ice formation in the winter act as a lubricant. However, further investigations are needed to provide knowledge of the efficiency of such natural lubricants and their retention on the rail. The present research has taken the IOL as a case study, but the results will be applicable all over the world.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Engineering and Technology Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71613 (URN)978-91-7790-272-0 (ISBN)978-91-7790-273-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-02-14, F1031, Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Luleå, 09:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-11-19 Created: 2018-11-16 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved
Khan, S. A., Lundberg, J. & Stenström, C. (2018). Carry distance of top-of-rail friction modifiers. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, 232(10), 2418-2430
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carry distance of top-of-rail friction modifiers
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 232, no 10, p. 2418-2430Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rail issues such as corrugation, rolling contact fatigue, noise and wear have been increasing with the increase in railway traffic. The application of top-of-rail friction modifiers (TOR-FMs) is claimed by their manufacturers in the railway industry to be a well-established technique for resolving the above-mentioned issues. There are various methods for applying friction modifiers at the wheel–rail interface, among which stationary wayside systems are recommended by TOR-FM manufacturers when a distance of a few kilometres is to be covered. TOR-FM manufacturers also claim that by using wayside equipment, the TOR-FM can be spread over a minimum distance of 3 km, over which it maintains a coefficient of friction of µ = 0.35 ± 0.05. To determine the carry distance of TOR-FMs, some researchers use tribometers to measure the coefficients of friction. However, moisture and deposits from the environment and trains can alter the top-of-rail friction and give a misleading indication of the presence of a friction modifier. Therefore, the coefficient of friction itself is not a clear indicator of the presence of TOR-FMs. In the present study, cotton swabs dipped in a mixture of alcohol and ester were used to collect surface deposits (a third body) from both the wheel and rail at various distances from the point of application. Subsequently, the third body collected on the cotton swab was analysed using an energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The results have shown that the maximum carry distance of TOR-FMs on the top of the rail is limited to 70 m when using a TOR-FM from one manufacturer and to 450 m when using a TOR-FM from another manufacturer. The carry distance on the contact band of the wheel is limited to 100 m and 340 m. The friction modifier on the edges of the contact band was detected over a distance of up to 3 km; however, this will not minimise the damage or friction at the wheel–rail interface.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
Friction modifier, carry distance, top-of-rail, wayside equipment, top-of-rail friction modifier
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68850 (URN)10.1177/0954409718772981 (DOI)000450295400007 ()2-s2.0-85056728671 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-11-30 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-05-22 Created: 2018-05-22 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved
Khan, S. A., Persson, I., Lundberg, J. & Stenström, C. (2018). Prediction of the effects of friction control on top-of-rail cracks. Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, 232(2), 484-494
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of the effects of friction control on top-of-rail cracks
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of mechanical engineers. Part F, journal of rail and rapid transit, ISSN 0954-4097, E-ISSN 2041-3017, Vol. 232, no 2, p. 484-494Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rolling contact fatigue is a major problem connected with railway tracks, especially in curves, since it leads to highermaintenance costs. By optimising the top-of-rail friction, the wear and cracks on the top of the rail can eventually bereduced without causing very long braking distances. There are several research articles available on crack prediction,but most of the research is focused either on rail without a friction modifier or on wheels with and without frictioncontrol. In the present study, in order to predict the formation of surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue, a range offriction coefficients with different Kalker’s reduction factors has been assumed. Kalker’s reduction factor takes care ofthe basic tendency of creepage as a function of the traction forces at lower creepage. The assumed range covers possiblefriction values from those for non-lubricated rail to those for rail with a minimum measured friction control on the top ofthe rail using a friction modifier. A fatigue index model based on the shakedown theory was used to predict thegeneration of surface-initiated rolling contact fatigue. Simulations were performed using multi-body simulation, forwhich inputs were taken from the Iron Ore line in the north of Sweden. The effect of friction control was studiedfor different curve radii, ranging from 200 m to 3000 m, and for different axle loads from 30 to 40 tonnes at a constanttrain speed of 60 km/h. One example of a result is that a maximum friction coefficient (m) of 0.2 with a Kalker’s reductionfactor of 15% is needed in the case of trains with a heavy axle load to avoid crack formation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2018
Keywords
Rolling contact fatigue, fatigue index, friction modifier, friction control, rail
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60052 (URN)10.1177/0954409716674984 (DOI)000424780200012 ()
Projects
top of rail project
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-02-12 (svasva)

Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved
Khan, S. A., Persson, I., Lundberg, J. & Stenström, C. (2017). Prediction of top-of-rail friction control effects on rail RCF suppressed by wear. Wear, 380-381, 106-114
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of top-of-rail friction control effects on rail RCF suppressed by wear
2017 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 380-381, p. 106-114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rolling contact fatigue (RCF) and wear, two major deterioration processes, limit the lifetime of rails. These deterioration processes are even more severe on the curves of tracks used by heavy haul trains. Because wear is a material removing process, it can suppress the formation of RCF (also known as surface initiated cracks). In railways, cracks have a higher risk of instigating a catastrophic failure than wear; hence, it is comparatively better to have wear than to have cracks. By controlling the top-of-rail friction, both of these deteriorating processes can be reduced to enhance the lifetime of rails. In order to achieve these possible advantages, the infrastructure manager of the Swedish railway is planning to implement a top-of-rail friction control technology on the iron ore line in northern Sweden wherein RCF is a major problem on the curves. The present study uses a damage index model in a multi-body simulation software and predicts the probability of RCF formation with suppressing effect of wear for different friction control values. The effect of friction control is simulated on curve radii ranging from 200 to 3,000 m and axle loads ranging from 30 to 40 t at a constant train speed of 60 km/h. Findings show that on a very sharp circular curve, radius < 300 m, RCF can be eliminated without friction control due to the high wear rate. On moderate curves, 300 < radius < 1,000 m, a friction coefficient (µ) of, at most, 0.3 with a Kalker's coefficient of, at most, 30% is required to avoid RCF

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62498 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2017.03.010 (DOI)000401076300013 ()2-s2.0-85015674892 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-03-27 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-03-14 Created: 2017-03-14 Last updated: 2019-02-07Bibliographically approved
Rosenkrantz, A., Khan, S. A., Szurdak, A., Hirt, G. & Gachot, C. (2017). Wear behavior of micro-coined steel surfaces under mixed lubrication. Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, 69(6), 1033-1039
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wear behavior of micro-coined steel surfaces under mixed lubrication
Show others...
2017 (English)In: Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, ISSN 0036-8792, E-ISSN 1758-5775, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 1033-1039Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of hemispherical structures fabricated by hot micro-coining on the resulting wear performance. Hemispherical structures with different area densities (20 and 30 per cent), depths (50 and 100 mu m) and diameters (100 and 200 m) were fabricated by hot micro-coining on stainless steel samples.

Design/methodology/approach - The wear performance of these samples was studied using a ball-on-disk tribometer in rotational sliding mode using a normal load of 30 N and a fixed sliding velocity of 2 cm/s. Two different poly-(alpha)-olefin (PAO) oils without any additive having a kinematic viscosity of 4 and 40 cSt, were used to study the influence of the oil viscosity on the wear behavior.

Findings - Concerning the polished reference, an enlarged wear volume with an increase in the cycle number and the oil viscosity was observed. In the case of the micro-coined surfaces, all samples demonstrate a pronounced reduction in the wear volume (up to a factor of 100 for PAO 40) compared to the polished reference irrespective of the oil viscosity used.

Originality/value - This study details new research work studying the wear behavior of hot micro-coined surfaces.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Germany: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2017
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Operation and Maintenance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60164 (URN)10.1108/ILT-11-2015-0167 (DOI)000417510200025 ()2-s2.0-85038571271 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-07 Created: 2016-11-07 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9723-2881

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