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Danila, V., Kumpiene, J., Kasiuliene, A. & Vasarevičius, S. (2020). Immobilisation of metal(loid)s in two contaminated soils using micro and nano zerovalent iron particles: Evaluating the long-term stability. Chemosphere, 248, Article ID 126054.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immobilisation of metal(loid)s in two contaminated soils using micro and nano zerovalent iron particles: Evaluating the long-term stability
2020 (English)In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 248, article id 126054Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to compare the immobilisation of metal(loid)s in two differently contaminated soils using micro zerovalent iron (ZVI) and nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles. Chromated copper arsenate-contaminated soil contained high amounts of As, Cu, Cr, and Zn, whereas mining-contaminated soil contained high amounts of As, Cu, and Pb. Contaminated soils were amended using 2% ZVI and nZVI. As determined by the leaching procedures, nZVI was more efficient in immobilising all the studied metal(loid)s in the soils compared to ZVI. The greatest immobilisation was achieved for As in both soils. The long-term stability of immobilised metal(loid)s was studied in mining-contaminated soil by performing thermal oxidation (ageing). In the ZVI and nZVI-treated soils, high retention results were achieved for As and Cu, whereas in the ZVI and nZVI-treated soils, significant desorption of Pb was observed. The results also showed that retention of metal(loid)s over a long period of time could be more effective in soils treated with ZVI, as the crystallisation of Fe in ZVI-treated soil was to a lesser extent compared to the crystallisation of Fe in nZVI-treated soil.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Chromated copper arsenate, Sequential extraction, Availability, Arsenic, Thermal ageing, Mining-contaminated soil
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78428 (URN)10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126054 (DOI)000527930600094 ()32023510 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85078663146 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-04-09 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-04-09 Created: 2020-04-09 Last updated: 2020-05-14Bibliographically approved
Kasiuliene, A., Carabante, I., Sefidari, H., Öhman, M., Bhattacharya, P. & Kumpiene, J. (2020). Leaching of Metal(loid)s From Ashes of Spent Sorbent and Stabilisation Effect of Calcium-Rich Additives. Environmental Science and Pollution Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leaching of Metal(loid)s From Ashes of Spent Sorbent and Stabilisation Effect of Calcium-Rich Additives
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2020 (English)In: Environmental Science and Pollution Research, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Contaminated water with multiple contaminants, including As, Cr, Cu and Zn, was treated with a sorbent prepared by coating peat with Fe oxides. Because As has a relatively little explored market, the regeneration of the spent sorbent was not feasible. Meanwhile, the disposal of As wastes in landfills can cause landfill leachate treatment problems. Under the reducing conditions prevailing at landfills, As(V) is reduced to As(III), which is a toxic and more mobile form. In this study, incineration was explored as a management option to treat the spent sorbent that was loaded with As, Cr, Cu and Zn. The first objective of this study was to evaluate the leaching of these metal(loid)s from the ashes and compare it with the leaching from the spent sorbents before incineration. The second objective was to evaluate the leaching behaviour when the spent sorbent was co-incinerated with a Ca-rich additive (lime). To achieve these objectives, the obtained ashes were subjected to leaching tests, sequential extraction, and X-ray diffraction analyses. After the incineration, the ash content ranged from 9 to 19% of the initial mass of the spent sorbents. The leaching of As, Cu and Zn decreased compared with that from the spent sorbents before the thermal treatment because of the high incineration temperatures and/or co-incineration with lime. However, the leaching of Cr increased, which would hinder the disposal of the obtained ashes in a landfill because the limit value for disposal at a landfill for hazardous wastes was exceeded by 50 times. However, co-incineration with 10 wt% lime significantly decreased the leaching of Cr as a result of the formation of water-insoluble Ca-Cr compounds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2020
Keywords
Arsenic, Heavy metals, Lime, Incineration, Iron-coated peat, Thermochemical equilibrium calculations
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering Energy Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76322 (URN)10.1007/s11356-020-09269-z (DOI)32436093 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2020-05-27
Kasiuliene, A., Carabante, I., Bhattacharya, P. & Kumpiene, J. (2019). Hydrothermal carbonisation of peat-based spent sorbents loaded with metal(loid)s. Environmental science and pollution research international, 26(23), 23730-23738
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrothermal carbonisation of peat-based spent sorbents loaded with metal(loid)s
2019 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 23, p. 23730-23738Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydrothermal carbonisation (HTC) is a wet and relatively low-temperature process where, under autogenous pressures, biomass undergoes a chain of reactions leading to the defragmentation of organic matter. As well as its other uses (e.g. for producing low-cost carbon-based nano-compounds), HTC is utilised for the treatment of wet wastes, such as manure and biosludge. This study aimed to determine if hydrothermal carbonisation is a feasible treatment method for spent sorbents that are highly enriched with arsenic, chromium, copper, and zinc. The chemical properties of hydrochar and process liquid were evaluated after HTC treatment, where peat-based spent sorbents were carbonised at 230 °C for 3 h. Analysis of Fourier transform-infrared spectra revealed that during HTC, the oxygenated bonds of ethers, esters, and carboxylic groups were cleaved, and low-molecular-weight organic fragments were dissolved in the process liquid. A large fraction of arsenic (up to 62%), copper (up to 25%), and zinc (up to 36%) were transferred from the solids into the process water. Leaching of these elements from the hydrochars increased significantly in comparison with the spent sorbents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Metals, Adsorption, Thermal treatment, Iron-peat, Post-sorption management, HTC
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75121 (URN)10.1007/s11356-019-05653-6 (DOI)000477958300045 ()31203552 (PubMedID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-08-20 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-06-28 Created: 2019-06-28 Last updated: 2019-10-25Bibliographically approved
Kasiuliene, A. (2019). Peat Coated with Iron Oxides: Purification of Metal(loid)-Contaminated Water and Treatment of the Spent Adsorbent. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peat Coated with Iron Oxides: Purification of Metal(loid)-Contaminated Water and Treatment of the Spent Adsorbent
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In Sweden due to the industrial activities, such as wood impregnation, multiple point sources of arsenic (As) contamination in soil and water bodies are scattered over the country. Metals, such as chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), cadmium (Cd) or zinc (Zn) at varying concentrations are usually present as well. Since adsorption is a common method to purify contaminated water, research and development of adsorbents have been actively carried out in the last few decades. However, seldom spent sorbent is safely handled afterwards and often end up in landfill, thus creating new problems and posing new risks to humans and environment.

The aim of this study was to develop a waste-based adsorbent for simultaneous removal of As and associated metals: Cr, Cu and Zn, and to analyse sustainable ways how to manage the spent adsorbent without creating secondary pollution.

In the model system two well-establish adsorbents: Fe oxides (deriving from FeCl3) and peat (waste-based), were combined and the concept of simultaneous removal of cationic and anionic contaminants was tested in a batch adsorption experiment. Due to Fe coating, removal of As and Cr increased by 80% and 30%, respectively, as compared to non-coated peat. Removal of Cu and Zn was higher (up to 15%) on non-coated peat than on Fe-coated peat. Similar results were obtained in the up-scaled column adsorption experiment, where Fe salt was substituted with a waste-based Fe hydrosol. Within the same pH environment (pH=5), Fe-coated peat effectively adsorbed all four investigated contaminants (As, Cr, Cu and Zn). Non-coated peat was effective for Cr, Cu and Zn. While, Fe oxides (coated on sand) adsorbed only As.

Three management strategies for spent adsorbents, obtained after column adsorption experiment, were investigated in this study. i) Long-term deposit in a landfill was simulated by exposing spent adsorbents to a reducing environment and evaluating metal(loid) leaching. Leaching of As increased manifold (up to 60% in a 200-day experiment) as compared to the standardized batch leaching experiment under oxidizing conditions. It was determined that about one third of As(V) was reduced to As(III), which is more mobile and toxic. ii) Valorisation of the spent adsorbent was attempted through hydrothermal carbonisation. It was expected that obtained hydrochar could be used as a beneficial soil amendment. However, treatment resulted in the process liquid and the hydrochar both having high loads of As, Cu and Zn. Additional treatment of process water and hydrochar imply higher management costs for spent adsorbents. iii) Possibility of thermal destruction was investigated by combusting spent adsorbents. After the treatment volume of the waste (ash) was by 80-85% smaller as compared to spent adsorbents. Combustion at higher temperature (1100 °C vs 850 °C) resulted into a weaker metal(loid) leaching from ashes. Furthermore, co-combustion with calcium (Ca)-rich lime (waste-based) decreased leaching of all four investigated elements, Cr in particular, below the limit values for waste being accepted at landfills for hazardous waste. Therefore, combustion enabled possibility of safe and long-term deposit of As-bearing ashes. At the same time, less As would be circulating in society. 

For the future work, studies that could broaden the spectrum of contaminants targeted by Fe-coated peat would be beneficial. At the same time it is important not only to find alternative utilisation methods for Fe-coated peat, but also investigate other management options for the spent adsorbents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
iron-peat, adsorption, arsenic, metals, combustion, hydrothermal carbonisation, landfilling
National Category
Environmental Management Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76325 (URN)978-91-7790-462-5 (ISBN)978-91-7790-463-2 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-12-05, D770, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
Kasiuliene, A., Carabante, I., Bhattacharya, P. & Kumpiene, J. (2019). Treatment of metal (loid) contaminated solutions using iron-peat as sorbent: is landfilling a suitable management option for the spent sorbent?. Environmental science and pollution research international, 26(21), 21425-21436
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment of metal (loid) contaminated solutions using iron-peat as sorbent: is landfilling a suitable management option for the spent sorbent?
2019 (English)In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 26, no 21, p. 21425-21436Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study firstly aimed to investigate the potential of simultaneous metal (loid) removal from metal (oid) solution through adsorption on iron-peat, where the sorbent was made from peat and Fe by-products. Up-flow columns filled with the prepared sorbent were used to treat water contaminated with As, Cu, Cr, and Zn. Peat effectively adsorbed Cr, Cu, and Zn, whereas approximately 50% of inlet As was detected in the eluent. Iron-sand was effective only for adsorbing As, but Cr, Cu, and Zn were poorly adsorbed. Only iron-peat showed the simultaneous removal of all tested metal (loid)s. Metal (loid) leaching from the spent sorbent at reducing conditions as means to assess the behaviour of the spent sorbent if landfilled was also evaluated. For this purpose, a standardised batch leaching test and leaching experiment at reducing conditions were conducted using the spent sorbent. It was found that oxidising conditions, which prevailed during the standardised batch leaching test, could have led to an underestimation of redox-sensitive As leaching. Substantially higher amounts of As were leached out from the spent sorbents at reducing atmosphere compared with oxidising one. Furthermore, reducing environment caused As(V) to be reduced into the more-toxic As (III).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Arsenic, metals, trace elements, sorption, landfill leachate, low redox
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-74016 (URN)10.1007/s11356-019-05379-5 (DOI)000482211100030 ()31119550 (PubMedID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-09-09 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-05-23 Created: 2019-05-23 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Tian, S., Tan, Z., Kasiuliene, A. & Ai, P. (2017). Transformation mechanism of nutrient elements in the process of biochar preparation for returning biochar to soil. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, 25(4), 477-486
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transformation mechanism of nutrient elements in the process of biochar preparation for returning biochar to soil
2017 (English)In: Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering, ISSN 1004-9541, E-ISSN 2210-321X, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 477-486Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Returning biochar to soil is a heavily researched topic because biochar functions well for soil improvement. There is a significant loss of nutrients, which occurs during biochar preparation before biochar is returned to soil, thereby seriously undermining biochar's efficacy. Therefore, the transformation mechanisms of biochar pH, mass, nutrients and metals during pyrolysis under different atmospheres and temperatures were studied such that the best method for biochar preparation could be developed. Several conclusions can be reached: (1) a CO2 atmosphere is better than a N2 atmosphere for biochar preparation, although preparation in a CO2 atmosphere is not a common practice for biochar producers; (2) 350 °C is the best temperature for biochar preparation because the amount of nutrient loss is notably low based on the premise of straw transferred into biochar; and (3) transforming mechanisms of pH, N, P and K are also involved in the biochar preparation process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59792 (URN)10.1016/j.cjche.2016.09.009 (DOI)000402913500011 ()2-s2.0-85008441594 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-06-08 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2016-10-17 Created: 2016-10-17 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5375-8825

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