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Biography [eng]

Green liquor dregs-amended till to cover sulfidic mine waste.

The mining industry produces massive amounts of waste that without treatment and in contact with oxygen can result in acid rock drainage (ARD) and increased leaching of metals. In Sweden, the common way to manage the mine waste after closure is to apply a soil coverage on top of the waste deposition. The purpose of the soil cover is to hinder the oxygen transport to the waste rock underneath. This is achieved by minimizing the water transport to the waster rock and by creating a water saturated layer on top of the waste rock to deter the oxygen diffusion through the air in the pores. The access to a suitable cover-material is however limited and can lead to extensive costs for the mining company. This creates a great driving force for alternative solutions, e.g. bentonite amendment to till. However, bentonite production is costly both economically and environmentally due to time- and resource- consuming production. Recycling of industrial residues as a cover material is another option. The recycling is beneficial for many parts, i.e. the industry producing the residue, the mining industry that will use the residue and the society in its strive for zero waste. An industrial residue that has potential to improve the sealing layer qualities of a local till is Green Liquor Dregs (GLD), a residue from pulp production in a paper mill.

The study can be devided into a laboratory part and a field part. In the laboratory part 5 to 20 wt. % of GLD from different paper mills, were mixed with three tills with varying particle size distributions (PSD) and total solid content (TSC). The objectives of the study were to investigate if GLD addition can improve a till so it can be used in a sealing layer, how the fines- and clay content in the tills affects the hydraulic conductivity (HC) and the water retention capacity (WRC) of the till-GLD mixtures, and how the initial water content will affect the HC in the different mixtures.

In the field part a pilot cell and an experimental surface consiting of till and 10 wt. % GLD has been constructed. the soil cover has been instrumented with oxygen provbes, temperature probes, soil moisture probes and pore pressure probes to evaluate the effectivness of the cover to prohibit oxygen diffusion to the waste rock underneath.

Biography [swe]

Tillsatts av grönlutslam i morän för täckning av sulfidhaltigt gruvavfall.

Gruvindustrin producerar massiva mängder avfall som utan behandling och i kontakt med syre kan resultera i surt lakvatten (ARD) med ökad utlakning av metaller som följd. I Sverige är det vanliga sättet att hantera gruvavfallet efter stängning att applicera en torrtäckning ovanpå gråbergsdeponin. Syftet med torrtäckningen är att förhindra syretillförseln till gråberget under. Detta uppnås dels genom att minimera vattentransporten till gråbeget och att skapa ett vattenmättat lager ovanför gråberget för att därmed förhindra syrediffusionen via luften i porerna. Tillgången till ett lämpligt täckmaterial  är dock begränsat och kan leda till stora kostnader för gruvbolaget. Det skapar en stor drivkraft för alternativa lösningar, där tillsats av bentonit till moränen är ett exempel. Bentonitproduktionen är dock dyr både ekonomiskt och miljömässigt på grund av tids- och resurskrävande produktion. Återvinning av industriella restprodukter som täckmaterial är ett annat alternativ. Återvinningen är fördelaktig för många parter, men framförallt industrin som producerar restprodukten, gruvindustrin som kommer att använda produkten och samhället i sin strävan efter noll-avfall. En industriell restprodukt som har potential att förbättra tätskiktets kvalitet hos en lokal morän är grönlutslam (GLS), en restprodukt från massaproduktionen.

Studien kan delas upp i en laborationsdel och en fältdel. I laborationsdelen av studien tillsattes 5 till 20 viktprocent GLS från olika pappersbruk, till tre morän med varierande partikelstorleksfördelning (PSD) och torrsubstans (TSC). Syftet med laborationstudien var att undersöka om (i) GLS-tillsatsen kan förbättra en morän så att den kan användas i ett tätskikt, (ii) hur silt- och lerinnehållet i moränerna påverkar den hydrauliska konduktiviteten och vattenhållningsförmågan av morän-GLS-blandningarna, och (iii) hur den ursprungliga vattenhalten kommer att påverka den hydrauliska konduktiviteten i de olika blandningarna.

I fältdelen har en pilotcell och en experimentsyta där ett tätskikt av morän och 10 viktprocent GLS har byggts upp. Täckningen har instrumenterats med syresonder, temperatursonder, fuktighetsmätare och portrycksmätare för att utvärdera täckningens effektivitet i att förhindra syrediffusionen till gråberget.

Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Alakangas, L., Hanna, K., Maurice, C., Nyström, E. & Nigéus, S. (2019). StopOx: Utilization Of Industrial Residuals For Prevention Of Sulfide Oxidation In Mine Waste. Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>StopOx: Utilization Of Industrial Residuals For Prevention Of Sulfide Oxidation In Mine Waste
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2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report is the outcome of the SIP STRIM project

StopOx-Utilization of industrial residuals for prevention of sulfide oxidation in mine waste implemented at Applied geochemistry, Luleå University of Technology running from 2015 to 2018. Boliden Mineral has been partner and co-funder of the project. Other partners in the project were Cementa, Dragon Mining, MEROX, Nordkalk, and SP Processum. The overall aim of the project was to develop prevention technologies to reduce the sulfide oxidation in mine waste, during and after operation, and thereby reduce the generation of acid mine drainage. The StopOx project has been focusing on sulfidic mine waste from the Boliden area which were disposed of and are causing acid mine drainage or have the potential. Industrial residues/products were supplied by BillerudKorsnäs, Cementa, MEROX, and Nordkalk. The report consists of chapters based on three subprojects.

Chapter 1. Introduction

Chapter 2. Inhibition technology with aim to minimize waste rock oxidation during operations by using residues from other industries (passivation of sulfidic surfaces by the formation of secondary minerals)

Chapter 3. The suitability of green liquor dregs as substitutes for or additives to till in a sealing layer as part of a cover system

Chapter 4. Weathering of waste rock under changing chemical conditions

The research described in chapters 2 and 3 was performed by Ph.D. students and will continue until 2021, while the subproject in chapter 2 ended in 2018.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019. p. 83
Keywords
mine waste, sulfide oxidation, ARD, inhibition, dry cover, seconday minerals
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Applied Geochemistry; Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75754 (URN)978-91-7790-448-9 (ISBN)978-91-7790-449-6 (ISBN)
Funder
Vinnova, 2014-01860
Available from: 2019-08-29 Created: 2019-08-29 Last updated: 2019-11-22Bibliographically approved
Nigéus, S. (2018). Green liquor dregs-amended till to cover sulfidic mine waste. (Licentiate dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Green liquor dregs-amended till to cover sulfidic mine waste
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Tillsatts av grönlutslam i morän för täckning av sulfidhaltigt gruvavfall
Abstract [en]

The mining industry produces massive amounts of waste that without treatment and in contact with oxygen can result in acid rock drainage (ARD) and increased leaching of metals. In Sweden, the common way to manage the mine waste after closure is to apply a dry coverage on top of the waste deposition. The access to a suitable cover-material is however limited and can lead to extensive costs for the mining company. This creates a great driving force for alternative solutions, e.g. bentonite amendment to till. However, bentonite production is costly both economically and environmentally due to time- and resource- consuming production. Recycling of industrial residues as a cover material is another option. The recycling is beneficial for many parts, i.e. the industry producing the residue, the mining industry that will use the residue and the society in its strive for zero waste. An industrial residue that has potential to improve the sealing layer qualities of a local till is Green Liquor Dregs (GLD), a residue from pulp production in a paper mill. In this study 5 to 20 wt. % of GLD from two different paper mills, with varying total solid content (TSC) and particle size distributions (PSD), were mixed with three tills also with varying PSD and TSC. The objectives of the study were to investigate if GLD addition can improve a till so it can be used in a sealing layer, how the fines- and clay content in the tills affects the hydraulic conductivity (HC) and the water retention capacity (WRC) of the till-GLD mixtures, and how the initial water content will affect the HC in the different mixtures. The HC of the mixtures based most of the tills studied improved, but not enough to reach the required 10-8 m/s. Only the material based on a more clayey silty till had an HC below 10-8 m/s, even if it increased with the addition of GLD. The WRC, on the other hand, shows promising results, especially for 15 wt. % GLD addition. An increase in WRC is seen the more GLD is added. However, due to compaction difficulties more than 20 wt. % addition is not recommended. There is a difference in both HC and WRC between the mixtures based on the different tills, and a characterization of the till as a bulk material and its mixture with GLD is suggested before using it in mine remediation purposes. The HC of the till is affected by the content of fines and especially clay. The results from the WRC is more complicated and a mineralogical study on the GLD and the clay fraction of the tills is recommended. This study also shows that the initial water content of the materials rather than dry density has an impact on the HC of the mixtures. The initial water content determines the degree wet of optimum that in this and previous studies has shown to greatly affect the HC. A drier till and GLD leads to that more GLD should be added to the mixture when reaching for optimal HC. Even if the study did not result in low enough HC in most of the cases, the WRC shows promising results and is the most important parameter minimizing the oxygen diffusion to the mine waste. The greatest challenge when working with GLD is, however, its heterogeneity which makes it difficult to predict how it will behave in a sealing layer. Even though, the recycling of GLD in mine waste remediation should be strived for as it is beneficial for both the industry that provides the residue and the mining company. It is also a great profit for the environment as it minimizes the waste disposed and reduce use of natural resources.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering Environmental Sciences Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68654 (URN)978-91-7790-144-0 (ISBN)978-91-7790-145-7 (ISBN)
Presentation
2018-09-06, E632, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-05-07 Created: 2018-05-07 Last updated: 2018-10-29Bibliographically approved
Nigéus, S. & Maurice, C. (2018). Monitoring a field application of a Green Liquor Dregs-till mixture in a sealing layer on top of sulfidic mine waste. In: 11th ICARD | IMWA | WISA MWD 2018 Conference: Risk to Opportunity. Paper presented at 11th ICARD IMWA MWD Conference “Risk to Opportunity” (ICARD 2018), September 10-14, 2018, Pretoria, South Africa. (pp. 57-63).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Monitoring a field application of a Green Liquor Dregs-till mixture in a sealing layer on top of sulfidic mine waste
2018 (English)In: 11th ICARD | IMWA | WISA MWD 2018 Conference: Risk to Opportunity, 2018, p. 57-63Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Sul dic mine waste le unattended and in contact with oxygen oxidize and have potential to produce acid rock drainage (ARD). A typical method in Sweden to stop sul de oxidation is to apply a dry cover on top of the mine waste. Using the non-hazardous industrial residue Green Liquor Dregs (GLD) in the cover is useful for the mining industry and the industry providing the residue and a large bene t for the environment. In this study, the e ectiveness of a mixture of till and 10 wt. % of GLD in a dry cover was studied by monitoring temperature, oxygen- and moisture content. e conclusion is that the sealing layer in una ected by frost, the oxygen concentrations are decreasing with time, but not in depth and the sealing layer with GLD-till mixture seem to be nearly saturated.

Keywords
Mine waste, ARD, Industrial residues, Green Liquor Dregs, Field application, Monitoring
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Applied Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71890 (URN)9780620806503 (ISBN)
Conference
11th ICARD IMWA MWD Conference “Risk to Opportunity” (ICARD 2018), September 10-14, 2018, Pretoria, South Africa.
Projects
paperChainGLAD - MISTRA Closing the loop
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved
Siren, S. (2016). Aktivitet: Bergforsk 2016 (ed.). Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aktivitet: Bergforsk 2016
2016 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36803 (URN)f67c23b1-c226-4f7f-b341-42a9ca17da71 (Local ID)f67c23b1-c226-4f7f-b341-42a9ca17da71 (Archive number)f67c23b1-c226-4f7f-b341-42a9ca17da71 (OAI)
Note
Evenemang (konferens etc): Bergforsk 2016 : 24/05/2016 - 25/05/2016; Startdatum: 24/05/2016; Slutdatum: 25/05/2016; Roll: Talare; Typ: Organiserade av och deltagande i konferenser, workshops, kurser, seminarier - Deltagande i workshop, seminarium, kursAvailable from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Siren, S., Maurice, C. & Alakangas, L. (2016). Green liquor dregs in mine waste remediation, from laboratory investigations to field application (ed.). In: (Ed.), Carsten Drebenstedt; Michael Paul (Ed.), Mining Meets Wate: conflict and solutions IMWA 2016 in Leipzig, Germany, July 11-15, 2016. Paper presented at International Mine Water Association Annual Conference 2016 : Mining meets Water - Conflicts and solutions 12/07/2016 - 15/07/2016 (pp. 706-713). Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Green liquor dregs in mine waste remediation, from laboratory investigations to field application
2016 (Swedish)In: Mining Meets Wate: conflict and solutions IMWA 2016 in Leipzig, Germany, July 11-15, 2016 / [ed] Carsten Drebenstedt; Michael Paul, Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering , 2016, p. 706-713Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The oxidation of sulphides in mine wastes is a possible threat to the environment as it has potential to generate acid rock drainage (ARD). A way to reduce ARD formation is to apply a soil cover to reduce oxygen fluxes and water infiltration to the underlying reactive wastes. A typical mine waste cover in Sweden consists of a compacted sealing layer of a fine grained till overlaid by an on-compacted protection layer. However, a fine grained till with low enough hydraulic conductivity (HC) can be difficult to find in the vicinity of the mine and it might be necessary to mix it with a fine grained material. In this study a mixture of till and a residue from pulp and paper production, Green Liquor Dregs (GLD) was studied in laboratory and in a pilot cell study. The objective of the laboratory study was to investigate if an addition of GLD will improve the HC of tills with different clay contents. The results show that HC of the different tills studied decreases with addition of 5-10 w.% of GLD, except from the clayey till that already had a low HC without addition of GLD. In the pilot scale study a cell was constructed to investigate the feasibility to compact a sealing layer of a fine grained till and 10 w. % of GLD. The pilot scale study shows that it can be difficult to reach a high compaction degree in the field. However, it does not necessarily mean that the HC of the sealing layer will increase. In fact the laboratory study shows the opposite trend, a decrease in HC with a decrease in dry density for tills with low clay content. The main conclusion of the study is that addition of GLD can be an alternative option to improve the properties of a local till that alone does not meet the requirements for HC.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Freiberg: TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Mining and Special Civil Engineering, 2016
Keywords
Other technology - Environmental engineering, Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering, Mine closure, Acid Rock Drainage, Mine waste, Sealing layer, Green Liquor Dregs, Mine closure, Acid Rock Drainage, Mine waste, Sealing layer, Green Liquor Dregs, Övriga teknikvetenskaper - Miljöteknik, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geology; Applied Geochemistry; Future mining (AERI)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28549 (URN)000402663400111 ()2601444b-a9a4-4f74-aa05-679679b511e8 (Local ID)978-3-86012-533-5 (ISBN)2601444b-a9a4-4f74-aa05-679679b511e8 (Archive number)2601444b-a9a4-4f74-aa05-679679b511e8 (OAI)
Conference
International Mine Water Association Annual Conference 2016 : Mining meets Water - Conflicts and solutions 12/07/2016 - 15/07/2016
Projects
Användning av restprodukter för förhindrande sulfid oxidation i reaktivt gruvavfall- en förstudie
Note

Godkänd; 2016; 20160817 (sussir)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2019-11-22Bibliographically approved
Siren, S. (2015). Aktivitet: SveMin Miljökonferens 2015 (ed.). Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aktivitet: SveMin Miljökonferens 2015
2015 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geology; Tillämpad geokemi
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36623 (URN)927243c2-9bed-4ee7-a6fb-beba8c012827 (Local ID)927243c2-9bed-4ee7-a6fb-beba8c012827 (Archive number)927243c2-9bed-4ee7-a6fb-beba8c012827 (OAI)
Note
Evenemang (konferens etc): SveMin Miljökonferens 2015 : 07/10/2015 - 08/01/2016; Startdatum: 07/10/2015; Slutdatum: 08/10/2015; Roll: Deltagare; Typ: Organiserade av och deltagande i konferenser, workshops, kurser, seminarier - Deltagande i workshop, seminarium, kursAvailable from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Siren, S. (2015). Aktivitet: Wascon 2015 (ed.). Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aktivitet: Wascon 2015
2015 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geology; Tillämpad geokemi
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36564 (URN)74a33404-778e-4c36-a34c-33970680c4c6 (Local ID)74a33404-778e-4c36-a34c-33970680c4c6 (Archive number)74a33404-778e-4c36-a34c-33970680c4c6 (OAI)
Note
Evenemang (konferens etc): Wascon 2015 : Resource efficiency in construction 10/06/2015 - 12/06/2015; Startdatum: 10/06/2015; Slutdatum: 12/06/2015; Projekt: Wascon 2015; Roll: Talare; Typ: Organiserade av och deltagande i konferenser, workshops, kurser, seminarier - Deltagande i workshop, seminarium, kursAvailable from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Siren, S., Maurice, C. & Alakangas, L. (2015). Evaluation of mixtures of green liquor dregs and till for application as a sealing layer on sulfidic mine waste (ed.). Paper presented at Wascon 2015 : Resource efficiency in construction 10/06/2015 - 12/06/2015. Paper presented at Wascon 2015 : Resource efficiency in construction 10/06/2015 - 12/06/2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of mixtures of green liquor dregs and till for application as a sealing layer on sulfidic mine waste
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Keywords
Civil engineering and architecture - Geoengineering and mining engineering, Green Liquor Dregs, Mine waste, Sealing layer, Acid Mine Drainage, Industrial residues, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Geoteknik och gruvteknik
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geology; Tillämpad geokemi; Future mining (AERI); Attractive built environment (AERI)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-30902 (URN)4e4a7780-def6-4e81-8e60-92bdbc42074d (Local ID)4e4a7780-def6-4e81-8e60-92bdbc42074d (Archive number)4e4a7780-def6-4e81-8e60-92bdbc42074d (OAI)
Conference
Wascon 2015 : Resource efficiency in construction 10/06/2015 - 12/06/2015
Projects
Utilization of Industrial Residuals for Prevention of Sulphide Oxidation in Mine Wastes
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20160525 (sussir)Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2019-11-22Bibliographically approved
Siren, S. (2014). Aktivitet: SveMin miljökonferens (ed.). Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Aktivitet: SveMin miljökonferens
2014 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geology; Tillämpad geokemi
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36728 (URN)d4599402-9dfc-486f-9e92-d214e80f35ad (Local ID)d4599402-9dfc-486f-9e92-d214e80f35ad (Archive number)d4599402-9dfc-486f-9e92-d214e80f35ad (OAI)
Note
Evenemang (konferens etc): SveMin miljökonferens : 06/10/2014 - 08/10/2014; Startdatum: 06/10/2014; Slutdatum: 08/10/2014; Roll: Deltagare; Typ: Organiserade av och deltagande i konferenser, workshops, kurser, seminarier - Deltagande i workshop, seminarium, kursAvailable from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-05-21Bibliographically approved
Alakangas, L., Maurice, C., Nyström, E. & Siren, S. (2014). Project: Utilization of Industrial Residuals for Prevention of Sulphide Oxidation in Mine Wastes. Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Project: Utilization of Industrial Residuals for Prevention of Sulphide Oxidation in Mine Wastes
2014 (English)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Keywords
Prevention, sulfid oxidation, mine waste
National Category
Geochemistry
Research subject
Applied Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36030 (URN)313a3b5c-2a71-4ec4-8dc3-c5474d419b91 (Local ID)313a3b5c-2a71-4ec4-8dc3-c5474d419b91 (Archive number)313a3b5c-2a71-4ec4-8dc3-c5474d419b91 (OAI)
Note

Publikationer: Evaluation of mixtures of green liquor dregs and till for application as a sealing layer on sulfidic mine wastes; Status: Pågående; Period: 01/09/2014 → 31/12/2016

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2019-11-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1367-7080

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