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Marklund, E. (2019). Treatment oriented waste characterization. (Licentiate dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Treatment oriented waste characterization
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

New types of materials and products are developed every day, and subsequently, new types of wastes. At the same time, new regulations are put forth to protect human health and the ecosystems from the negative impacts of wastes. Often, the waste management industry is responsible to deal with these problems, and hence, good knowledge about wastes and their treatment is crucial. Waste is normally characterized in order to determine a treatment; however, this usually implies a known treatment method.

This thesis aims to provide a structured approach about how to describe different treatments, and to provide guidance on how to characterize wastes in a solution oriented manner. A distinction is made between two types of treatments: those based on separation processes and those based on transformation processes, as well as combinations of the two. Separation processes are common in mechanical treatment such as sieving or air-classification. Transformation processes are common in such treatments as shredding, electroporation, radiation treatment, and stabilization. Most treatments consist of both a transformation and a separation process, such as incineration, in which the organic carbon is oxidized (transformed) into CO2,that then is separated from the remaining solids. Other examples of combined processes are composting and anaerobic digestion.

A framework is presented that enables a quantitative description of different waste treatments such as anaerobic digestion and incineration in the same context. All transformation processes take place in an environment that can be described by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, redox, radiation etc. By relating different treatments or observations to each other in an n-dimension matrix, it is possible to not only locate the currently known treatments, but also to locate unexplored areas, i.e. combinations of environmental factors that could be used to treat wastes in new ways.

The addition of the n-dimensional framework to the general characterization model, together with the “top down” strategy for characterization provide valuable insights useful for dealing with new types of wastes in an efficient manner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019. p. 23
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71570 (URN)978-91-7790-268-3 (ISBN)978-91-7790-269-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-01-29, F231, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2018-11-14 Created: 2018-11-14 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
Marklund, E., Andreas, L. & Lagerkvist, A. (2018). Float-sink separation of construction and demolition waste fines. Detritus, 3, 13-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Float-sink separation of construction and demolition waste fines
2018 (English)In: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 3, p. 13-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Landfilling and waste incineration are two major waste management options. However, due to their carbon content, some wastes may be unsuitable for these systems. Therefore, methods capable of removing organic carbon from wastes should be identified. One of these wastes is represented by construction and demolition fines. In this paper, we investigate the use of water in separating the waste by density, to verify the suitability of this method in the separation of carbon-containing materials, both in lab and field scale tests. The results obtained show that half of the carbon (measured as volatile solids) can be separated. However, this method fails to reliably produce a sink fraction suitable for landfilling, as it continues to be characterized by an excessively high organic material content.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Padova, Italy: , 2018
Keywords
Construction and demolition waste, Float-sink separation, Density separation, Characterization
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71329 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2018.13648 (DOI)000474686200004 ()
Projects
TOOLF
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Marklund, E., Andreas, L. & Lagerkvist, A. (2017). Float-sink separation of C&D waste: a case of treatment oriented waste characterization. In: Sixteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium: 2 -6 October 2017 S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy. Paper presented at 16th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Sardinia 2017, Santa Margherita di Pula, Italy, 2 -6 October 2017. Italy
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Float-sink separation of C&D waste: a case of treatment oriented waste characterization
2017 (English)In: Sixteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium: 2 -6 October 2017 S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, Italy, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Landfilling and waste incineration are two major waste management options. However, some wastes can,due to their carbon content,be unsuitable for neither of these systems. Therefore, there is aneed for methods to remove organic carbon from wastes. One of these wastesis the construction and demolition fines. In this paper, we investigate using water for separating the waste by density, to see if this is a suitable method for separating carbon-containingmaterials, both in lab and field scale tests. Results show that halfof the carbon (measured as volatile solids) can be separated. However, this method cannot be said to reliably produce a sink fraction that is suitable for landfilling, as it still contains too much organic materials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Italy: , 2017
Keywords
CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION WASTE, FLOAT-SINK SEPARATION, DENSITY SEPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67516 (URN)
Conference
16th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Sardinia 2017, Santa Margherita di Pula, Italy, 2 -6 October 2017
Projects
TOOLF
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved
Andreas, L. (2017). Hydrotermisk karbonisering: en praktisk avfallsbehandlingsmöjlighet?. Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrotermisk karbonisering: en praktisk avfallsbehandlingsmöjlighet?
2017 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Alternative title[en]
Hydrothermal carbonization : a practical waste treatment option?
Abstract [sv]

Hydrotermisk karbonisering (HTC) är en behandling där ett fuktigt organiskt materialutsätts för en kombination av värme och tryck, t ex 200°C och 20 bar. Då löses näringsämnenupp, och strukturen hos det organiska materialet förändras, vilket leder tillatt det stabiliseras, finfördelas, och enklare kan separeras från oorganiska delar.HTC har tidigare mest används vid bränsleproduktion, men i den här studien stod metodenspotential för avgiftning och separation av avfall i fokus, och vilken roll HTCkan ha som avfallsbehandlingsmetod. Syftet med projektet var att bedöma potentialenav HTC som metod för att öka återvinningen av näringsämnen i en cirkulär ekonomimed samtidigt förbättrad avgiftning av avfall jämfört med biologisk behandling, ochminskade utsläpp av koldioxid genom annan användning av organiska avfall än sombränsle.För att uppnå målen genomfördes labbförsök med efterföljande kemiska analyser, ochresultaten låg till grund för en multivariat dataanalys och en livscykelanalys.Resultaten visar på en avgiftning genom en separation av halten av skadliga tungmetaller,och att värmevärdet ökar. Dock så bedöms det analyserade materialet inte kunnaanvändas till jordförbättringsmedel eller som anläggningsmaterial, vilket dock främstberor på att materialet redan var förorenat.HTC lämpar sig bäst för blöta avfall med en blandning av organiska och oorganiskadelar. En marknadsanalys visar på att 100 000-tals ton av dessa typer av avfall fallervarje år.Sammanfattningsvis så kan processen vara intressant som avfallshanteringsmetod,men mer forskning behövs gällande mekaniska egenskaper och mekanisk separation.

Abstract [en]

Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a treatment where an organic material is subjected to a combination of heat and pressure, for example 200°C and 20 bars. Then nutrients are dissolved and the structure of the material is changed, leading to a stabilization and comminution, and making it easier to separate from the inorganic materials. Previously HTC has been used mostly for fuel production, but in this study the potential for detoxification and separation of wastes is in focus, and what role HTC can play as a waste management method. The purpose is to judge the potential of HTC as a method to increase recycling of nutrients in a circular economy with a simultaneous increased detoxification compared to biological treatment, and less emissions of carbondioxide trough other uses of organic materials than as fuel.

To achieve these goals a lab experiment was done with subsequent chemical analyses, and the results provided a basis for a multivariate analysis and a life cycle assessment (LCA). The results shows a detoxification trough a separation of the amounts of hazardous heavy metals and that there is an increase in heating value. However, the processed material cannot be used as a soil improver or as a construction material, but this is due to the fact that it was already contaminated.

HTC is most suitable for wet, organic, mixed wastes. A market analysis shows that 100 000's tons of these wastes are produced every year in Sweden.

To sum up, the process can be interesting as a waste management method, however more research is needed on the mechanical properties and separation of the material.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2017. p. 23
Keywords
Hydrotermisk karbonisering (HTC), kol, avfallsbehandling, spårelement, massbalans, bygg- och rivningsavfall
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71563 (URN)
Projects
RE:Source
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P44264-1
Available from: 2018-11-13 Created: 2018-11-13 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3755-6419

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