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Rajczakowska, M., Tole, I., Hedlund, H., Habermehl-Cwirzen, K. & Cwirzen, A. (2023). Autogenous self-healing of low embodied energy cementitious materials: Effect of multi-component binder and crack geometry. Construction and Building Materials, 376, Article ID 130994.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autogenous self-healing of low embodied energy cementitious materials: Effect of multi-component binder and crack geometry
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2023 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 376, article id 130994Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Concrete's ability to auto-repair the cracks reduces the need for maintenance and repair. Autogenous self-healing is an intrinsic property of concrete highly dependent on the binder composition. The urgent necessity to decrease CO2 emissions of concrete by replacing cement with “greener” materials provides challenges and opportunities for self-healing cementitious materials. This research aims to verify the self-healing behavior of environmentally friendly multi-component binders. An experimental study is conducted to test the effect of binder composition-related parameters (e.g., phase composition, porosity) and crack geometry on the self-healing efficiency of the “green” mortars. Cementitious materials with 50 wt.%cement replacement with limestone powder blended with fly ash, blast furnace slag, and silica fume are investigated. Sorptivity change, compressive strength regains, and crack closure after self-healing are used to quantify the self-healing efficiency. Quantitative analysis and correlations between chemical composition/microstructural features, geometrical crack characteristics, and self-healing measures are investigated. The results indicate that “green” binder composition affects the self-healing mechanism leading to different levels of performance recovery. Some SCMs-limestone binder formulations enable a better self-healing efficiency than pure OPC or OPC/limestone cementitious materials, presumably due to a synergistic effect between the limestone and the mineral additions. Correlation analysis indicated that geometrical complexity characterized by fractal dimension and tortuosity of the crack does not affect the external crack closure, whereas the fractal dimension and maximum crack width are correlated with the internal crack healing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Cracking, Microstructure, Mortar, Autogenous self-healing, Low embodied energy, Fractal dimension
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94753 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2023.130994 (DOI)2-s2.0-85150247385 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationSvenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-12 (hanlid);

Funder: Skanska AB, Sweden;

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis

Available from: 2022-12-06 Created: 2022-12-06 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Kothari, A., Tole, I., Hedlund, H., Ellison, T. & Cwirzen, A. (2023). Partial replacement of OPC with CSA cements – effects on hydration, fresh-, hardened-properties. Advances in Cement Research, 35(5), 207-224
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Partial replacement of OPC with CSA cements – effects on hydration, fresh-, hardened-properties
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2023 (English)In: Advances in Cement Research, ISSN 0951-7197, E-ISSN 1751-7605, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 207-224Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of a partial replacement of Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) with three types of calcium sulfoaluminate (CSA) cements (40 wt% and 20 wt%) were investigated. The obtained results were generally in agreement with previously published data but with few interesting exceptions. Setting times were shortened due to the formation of ettringite. The maximum hydration temperature increased for concretes containing 40 wt% of CSA but decreased when 20 wt% replacement was used. The decrease was related to the deficiency of the available sulfates, which limited the formation of ettringite. The presence of extra anhydrite and calcium oxide was associated to the delayed establishment of the second temperature peak in contrast to OPC-based concretes. Their surplus delayed calcium aluminate and belite reactions, and triggered renewed formation of ettringite, C-S-H and portlandite. Effects of aluminum hydroxide were also indicated as possibly important, although not proved experimentally in this research. The slightly lower compressive strength measured for mixes containing 40 wt% of CSA were linked with more formed ettringite. The same factor was indicated as the key to the reduction of the total shrinkage in mixes containing 40 wt% of CSA and increased for the lower CSA replacement level. In that case, the insufficient amount of formed ettringite caused too small expansion, which could not efficiently mitigate or compensate the developed shrinkage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ICE Publishing, 2023
Keywords
Calcium sulfoaluminate cement (CSA), Hydration, Microstructure-SEM-EDS, Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Shrinkage, XRD
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93760 (URN)10.1680/jadcr.22.00054 (DOI)000880071500001 ()2-s2.0-85140233648 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Svenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)Rock Engineering Research Foundation (BeFo)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-06-29 (joosat);

Available from: 2022-11-01 Created: 2022-11-01 Last updated: 2023-06-29Bibliographically approved
Tole, I., Delogu, F., Qoku, E., Habermehl-Cwirzen, K. & Cwirzen, A. (2022). Enhancement of the pozzolanic activity of natural clays by mechanochemical activation. Construction and Building Materials, 352, Article ID 128739.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancement of the pozzolanic activity of natural clays by mechanochemical activation
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2022 (English)In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 352, article id 128739Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Replacement of cement with supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) is a proven method to reduce clinker in cement and contribute to decreased CO2 emissions. Natural clays are commonly occurring materials that do not possess pozzolanic activity in their original state. Mechanochemical activation (MCA) can be an alternative and sustainable method to enhance their reactivity. In this study, the pozzolanic reactivity of three natural clays, originating from Sweden, was analyzed after the application of MCA in a planetary ball mill. Strength activity index (SAI), Frattini test, and conductivity test were used to evaluate the pozzolanic reactivity. All processed clays by MCA have achieved a SAI greater than 100%, while the Frattini test indicated an improved pozzolanic activity of samples containing a higher amount of clay minerals. The obtained results show that MCA could improve the pozzolanic reactivity, but the effect depends on the mineralogical composition and particle size of the clays.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Grinding, Blended Cement, Pozzolan, SCMs, Clays
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90356 (URN)10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2022.128739 (DOI)2-s2.0-85137668310 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-09-28 (hanlid)

Available from: 2022-04-21 Created: 2022-04-21 Last updated: 2022-09-28Bibliographically approved
Tole, I. (2022). Revalorization of poorly reactive sources by mechanochemical activation: An alternative approach for sustainable cementitious binders. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revalorization of poorly reactive sources by mechanochemical activation: An alternative approach for sustainable cementitious binders
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change made once again clear the urge to take immediate actions to reduce the emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Among the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Nr. 12 (“Ensure sustainable consumption and production of raw materials”) aims to improve the industrial sector and to ensure a high quality of life. Concrete is the second most used material after water and in its traditional form utilizes cement clinker, whose production contributes to 8-10% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Among the strategies to diminish the CO2 footprint, use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) and alkali-activated materials (AAM) are currently considered the most efficient countermeasures.  

Within this framework, revalorization of poorly reactive sources by mechanochemical activation can contribute to the development of novel binders with decreased CO2 footprint that can be utilized as partial or full replacement of Portland cement in concrete. Natural clays, mine tailings and air-cooled blast furnace slags (ACBFS), were activated in this study. Their applicability to be used in concretes as SCMs or/and AAMs was assessed. Natural clays are a mixture of various phases, whose compositions depends on weathering conditions. Naturally, they do not possess sufficient chemical reactivity to be utilized as SCMs. Similar properties possess mine tailings generated after extraction of precious elements, and slags produced in  blast furnaces of traditional steel plants.  

The present study aims to enhance the reactivity of these resources through mechanochemical activation (MCA) in a planetary ball mill. The process is considered a clean technology able to enhance the reactivity of crystalline materials without resorting to high processing temperatures or additional chemicals. MCA can induce amorphization, destroying the structure and breaking the bonds within the aluminosilicates and other minerals structure. The chosen parameters in the ball mill, as i.e. the filling amount, time of grinding, or speed of rotation, are strictly related to the degree of amorphization. Longer time of grinding, higher ball to processed powder (B/P) ratio, and higher grinding speeds generally increased the degree of the obtained amorphization. In such regard, an optimized process was chosen and further utilized to process all the poorly reactive resources. After MCA, the potential of clays and tailings as a SCM was investigated, while ACBFS was investigated as a precursor for alkali-activated materials. The achieved mechanical properties indicated a direct correlation between the enhanced amorphization degree of the mechanically activated clay and the increased strength values. The evaluation of SCMs was done by testing of their pozzolanic reactivity, enhanced after the mechanochemical activation. The reactivity was assessed by the strength activity index (SAI) and the Frattini test. Clays with higher content of clay minerals and tailings from the Kiruna mine deposit in Sweden showed increased pozzolanic reactivity and a great potential to be utilized as partial replacement of cement in concrete production. Furthermore, preliminary tests have shown that the alkali activation of the processed ACBFS produced solidified matrixes with considerable mechanical properties.   

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2022
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
clay, sustainability, mechanical activation, ball milling, supplementary cementitious materials, alkali-activated materials
National Category
Other Civil Engineering Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90365 (URN)978-91-8048-081-9 (ISBN)978-91-8048-082-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-06-17, F1031, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-04-22 Created: 2022-04-21 Last updated: 2022-05-27Bibliographically approved
Rothhämel, M., Tole, I., Mácsik, J. & Laue, J. (2022). Stabilization of sulfide soil with by-product originated hydraulic binder in a region with seasonal frost - a field investigation. Transportation Geotechnics, 34, Article ID 100735.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stabilization of sulfide soil with by-product originated hydraulic binder in a region with seasonal frost - a field investigation
2022 (English)In: Transportation Geotechnics, ISSN 2214-3912, Vol. 34, article id 100735Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fine-grained soils often show a low bearing capacity as well as a high frost susceptibility. These aspects are a challenge for the needs of infrastructure. The addition of hydraulic binder to fine-grained soils is common worldwide to improve the soil properties for engineering purposes. The classical hydraulic binders are lime and cement, but nowadays more and more by-producs are used as well like e. g. fly ash, slag or filter dust. The binders are called “hydraulic” because they react with water. By this reaction new minerals are formed, connecting the soil particles together. This improves the properties of the soil: A strength increase is even visible when the curing takes place in cold environment or after freezing and thawing cycles. Another challenge that occurs in fine-grained sulfidic soils is their possible acidification, when aerated due to e. g. excavation or drainage. Sulfide minerals in contact with oxygen produce sulfuric acid. The low pH caused by this oxidation can mobilize metals from the soil minerals, with harmful consequences for the environment. The addition of lime or calcite is one possible action to improve acid sulphate soils for agricultural and aqua-cultural purposes. The high pH of the lime and calcite increases the buffer capacity of the soil. However, the addition of hydraulic binder to a fine-grained sulfide soil in order to improve both the engineering properties and to buffer the potential acidification is sparsely investigated. In the present publication a field investigation is described where a cement mixture with cement kiln dust (CKD) is used alone and in combination with a calcite-rich by-product from the paper industry to improve a fine-grained sulfide soil for possible usage in earthworks. Samples taken from the surface after one year show a buffering of the potential acidification. Additionally, a strength increase can be seen in the stabilized soil when compressed and stored in a tube in field conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Soil stabilization, Hydraulic binder, By-product, Sulfide soil, Seasonal frost
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics; Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83884 (URN)10.1016/j.trgeo.2022.100735 (DOI)000793763800002 ()2-s2.0-85127656606 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Transport Administration, BVFF: 2018:2-22
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-04-19 (johcin)

Available from: 2021-04-22 Created: 2021-04-22 Last updated: 2022-10-31Bibliographically approved
Tole, I., Rajczakowska, M., Humad, A., Kothari, A. & Cwirzen, A. (2020). Geopolymer Based on Mechanically Activated Air-cooled Blast Furnace Slag. Materials, 13(5), Article ID 1134.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Geopolymer Based on Mechanically Activated Air-cooled Blast Furnace Slag
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2020 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 5, article id 1134Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An efficient solution to increase the sustainability of building materials is to replace Portland cement with alkali-activated materials (AAM). Precursors for those systems are often based on water-cooled ground granulated blast furnace slags (GGBFS). Quenching of blast furnace slag can be done also by air but in that case, the final product is crystalline and with a very low reactivity. The present study aimed to evaluate the cementitious properties of a mechanically activated (MCA) air-cooled blast furnace slag (ACBFS) used as a precursor in sodium silicate alkali-activated systems. The unreactive ACBFS was processed in a planetary ball mill and its cementing performances were compared with an alkali-activated water-cooled GGBFS. Mixes based on mechanically activated ACBFS reached the 7-days compressive strength of 35 MPa and the 28-days compressive strength 45 MPa. The GGBFS-based samples showed generally higher compressive strength values.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
mechanochemistry, alkali activation, air-cooled slag, ground granulated slag, mechanical activation, cement-free mortars
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78303 (URN)10.3390/ma13051134 (DOI)000524060200112 ()32143319 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85081681477 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-04-02 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-04-02 Created: 2020-04-02 Last updated: 2022-04-21Bibliographically approved
Tole, I. & Cwirzen, A. (2020). Supplementary cementitious materials and mechanochemistry for sustainable concrete production. In: Enea Mustafaraj, Julinda Keçi, Erion Luga (Ed.), 4th International Balkans Conference on Challenges of Civil Engineering: Abstract Book: . Paper presented at 4th International Balkans Conference on Challenges of Civil Engineering (BCCCE), December 18-19, 2020, Tirana, Albania (pp. 27-27). Tirana: Epoka University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supplementary cementitious materials and mechanochemistry for sustainable concrete production
2020 (English)In: 4th International Balkans Conference on Challenges of Civil Engineering: Abstract Book / [ed] Enea Mustafaraj, Julinda Keçi, Erion Luga, Tirana: Epoka University Press , 2020, p. 27-27Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Excavation and removal of unstable clayey soils before construction works, e.g., in infrastructure, residential or commercial buildings, etc., can generate vast amounts of waste clay deposits. Treatment of those clays to achieve suitable supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) for use in concrete production can extensively contribute to a circular economy. Mechanical activation (MC) by ball milling has shown suitability to be an alternative and sustainable method to process clays and to obtain dehydroxylation at reduced temperatures and without the addition of chemicals. Furthermore, BM can induce amorphization, increased chemical reactivity, and improved pozzolanic properties. Amorphization of crystalline phases can be achieved also for poorly reactive materials such as air-cooled blast furnace slags (ACBFS), which can be further utilized as a precursor in sodium silicate alkali-activated systems. This study shows how mechanical activation is promoting the reactivity of clay and ACBFS, and their potential to be used as a replacement for cement in concrete production. Evaluation of the pozzolanic activity before and after treatment was performed for the treated clay, suggesting increased pozzolanic properties. While alkali-activated systems based on mechanically treated ACBFS reached, after 28 days, comparable compressive strength values with the commonly used ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tirana: Epoka University Press, 2020
Keywords
sustainability, SCM, mechanical activation, clay, air-cooled slag
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90358 (URN)978-9928-135-35-3 (ISBN)
Conference
4th International Balkans Conference on Challenges of Civil Engineering (BCCCE), December 18-19, 2020, Tirana, Albania
Available from: 2022-04-21 Created: 2022-04-21 Last updated: 2023-01-24Bibliographically approved
Tole, I. (2019). Mechanical activation of clay: a novel route to sustainable cementitious binders. (Licentiate dissertation). Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical activation of clay: a novel route to sustainable cementitious binders
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

EU Sustainable Development Strategy planned to achieve improvement of life-quality by promoting sustainable production and consumption of raw materials. On November 2018, EU Commission presented a long-term strategy, aiming among others a climate-neutral economy by 2050. Cement production is contributing to 6-10% of the anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Thus, several strategies for total or partial replacement of Portland cement in concrete production have been developed. The use of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) and alkali-activated materials (AAM) is considered the most efficient countermeasure to diminish CO2 emissions. The broadening of knowledge with particular attention to the sustainable goals is the primary requirement to be fulfilled when novel materials are investigated. This study aims to develop a novel clay-based binder that can be used as a sustainable alternative to produce SCM as well as AAM. Clay is a commonly occurring material, with large deposits worldwide. However, natural clay has a low reactivity and various compositions, depending, e.g. on the weathering conditions. The present research aims exactly at enhancing the reactivity of natural clays occurring in Sweden subjecting them to mechanical activation in a planetary ball mill. Ball milling (BM) is considered a clean technology able to enhance the reactivity of crystalline materials without resorting to high processing temperatures or additional chemicals. BM was able to induce amorphization in clay minerals and to transform the layered platy morphology to spherical shape particles. The efficiency of the process was strictly related to the used process parameters. Higher ball to processed powder (B/P) ratio, longer time of grinding and higher grinding speeds increased the degree of the obtained amorphization. However, an undesired extensive caking and agglomeration occurred in certain setups. The potential of activated clay as a SCM was investigated in specific case studies. The measured compressive strength results showed a direct correlation between the enhanced amorphization degree of the mechanically activated clay and the increased strength values. The pozzolanic activity was induced and enhanced after the mechanical activation of the clay. The reactivity was assessed by the strength activity index (SAI). Furthermore, preliminary tests have shown that the alkali activation of the processed clays produced solidified matrixes with considerable strength.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2019
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Keywords
clay, sustainability, mechanical activation, ball milling, supplementary cementitious materials, alkali-activated materials
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76362 (URN)978-91-7790-471-7 (ISBN)978-91-7790-472-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-12-11, C305, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 08:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-11 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved
Tole, I., Habermehl-Cwirzen, K. & Cwirzen, A. (2019). Mechanochemical activation of natural clay minerals: an alternative to produce sustainable cementitious binders – review. Mineralogy and Petrology, 113(4), 449-462
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanochemical activation of natural clay minerals: an alternative to produce sustainable cementitious binders – review
2019 (English)In: Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0930-0708, E-ISSN 1438-1168, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 449-462Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mechanochemical activation can be defined as a process able to induce structural disorder through intensive grinding. In certain conditions, it may increase the chemical reactivity of the processed material. The process is extensively utilized in extractive metallurgy, synthesis of nanocomposites or pharmacology. It is also considered an environmentally friendly alternative to activate kaolinitic clay avoiding high calcination temperature. This paper aims to give a comprehensive overview of the process, its evolution, process parameters and applications. The paper focuses on the mechanochemical treatment of natural clay minerals, aiming at their transformation into cementitious or pozzolanic materials. It provides a summarized review of the theories related to the mechanochemistry and discusses commonly used models. The paper also analyzes various key factors and parameters controlling the mechanochemical activation process. The optimization and control of the several factors, as the filling ratio, the grinding media, the velocity, the time of grinding, etc., can promote developments and new research opportunities on different fields of application. Examples of applications, with a special focus on mechanochemically activated clay minerals and their use as cementitious binders, are listed as well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Mechanochemistry, Grinding, Mechanochemical activation, Clay minerals, Kaolin
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73879 (URN)10.1007/s00710-019-00666-y (DOI)000475666800002 ()2-s2.0-85065650673 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-07-12 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-05-08 Created: 2019-05-08 Last updated: 2022-04-21Bibliographically approved
Tole, I., Habermehl-Cwirzen, K. & Cwirzen, A. (2019). Mechanochemically activated clay as asustainable cementitious binder. In: V. Caprai; H.J.H. Brouwers (Ed.), Proceedings ICSBM 2019: Volume - Greened Materials. Paper presented at 2nd International Conference of Sustainable Building Materials (ICSBM 2019), Eindhoven, The Netherlands, August 12-15, 2019 (pp. 462-468). Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 3
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanochemically activated clay as asustainable cementitious binder
2019 (English)In: Proceedings ICSBM 2019: Volume - Greened Materials / [ed] V. Caprai; H.J.H. Brouwers, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2019, Vol. 3, p. 462-468Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

High-temperature requirements, emission of hazardous substances from cement kilns and the significant CO2 footprint in the calcination step are factors requiring special attention in the cement industry. Local and commonly occurring clays can be a sustainable alternative for producing cementitious binders. Structural disorder in natural clay minerals can be induced through mechanochemical activation (MCA), by which the material develops an enhanced reactivity. The treatment of a Swedish natural clay through intensive grinding is carried out in order to assess its potential as a sustainable cementitious binder. Several grinding parameters influence a MCA product. The filling ratio of the jar, the rotation speed, the time of grinding, as well as wet and dry environment, are variated to optimize the MCA process. The MCA process doesnot require high temperatures or added chemicals and shorter processing times can avoid high-energy requirements during fine grinding. The structural changes of the clay were analysed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Analysis of the particle size distribution of the raw and processed clay suggested a correlation with the grinding duration. An increased ratio of grinding media versus the amount of ground material, while longer grinding duration increased the overall efficiency of the MCA process. The strength activity index (SAI) indicated an enhanced pozzolanic activity for the mechanochemically processed clay. Compressive strength tests have shown a strong correlation between an enhanced amorphization rate and increased compressive strength values.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, 2019
Keywords
alternative cementitious binders, mechanochemical activation, sustainable building materials, mechanochemistry, clay
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76601 (URN)
Conference
2nd International Conference of Sustainable Building Materials (ICSBM 2019), Eindhoven, The Netherlands, August 12-15, 2019
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2019-11-04 Created: 2019-11-04 Last updated: 2022-04-21Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6797-9300

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