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Espin Delgado, AngelaORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6074-8633
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Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Sutaria, J., Rönnberg, S. & Espin Delgado, A. (2023). Factors influencing the induced primary emission and induced secondary emission in the frequency range of 2 to 150 kHz. Electric power systems research, 224, Article ID 109725.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Factors influencing the induced primary emission and induced secondary emission in the frequency range of 2 to 150 kHz
2023 (English)In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 224, article id 109725Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The induced primary emission leads to changes in the primary emission of a device and the induced secondary emission leads to changes in the propagation of supraharmonics in the adjacent phase due to the connection of single-phase loads spread over three phases in an installation. The induced primary emission and induced secondary emission are shown to give a significant contribution to the total emission measured at a given point in an installation. The induction of the emission is caused by the inductive and capacitive coupling among the conductors within the cables. This paper presents an analysis of four parameters that impact the magnitude of the induced emissions. Simulations carried out in COMSOL, show that the type of cable used impacts the induced emission and studies show that shielded cable with a stranded conductor with the shield grounded will lead to a reduction in the induced emissions. Among the other parameters, i.e., the load and transformer impedance and the length of the cable, the length of the cable is dominating in deciding the magnitude of the induced emissions. Analysis is carried out using Monte Carlo simulation and varying parameters stochastically. For all investigated parameters there is a strong frequency dependency. The stochastic variation of the load impedance in one phase causes a variation of 5% whereas the change in length of the cable leads to a maximum 40% variation in the considered frequency range for induced primary emission. Measurement results are presented to validate the results.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2023
Keywords
Crosstalk, inductive coupling, power quality, supraharmonics, primary emission, secondary emission
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96640 (URN)10.1016/j.epsr.2023.109725 (DOI)2-s2.0-85165970374 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 43090-2
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-08-07 (joosat);

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

Available from: 2023-04-17 Created: 2023-04-17 Last updated: 2023-10-11Bibliographically approved
Sudha Letha, S., Bollen, M. H. J., Busatto, T., Espin Delgado, A., Mulenga, E., Bakhtiari, H., . . . Ravindran, V. (2023). Power Quality Issues of Electro-Mobility on Distribution Network—An Overview. Energies, 16(13), Article ID 4850.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Power Quality Issues of Electro-Mobility on Distribution Network—An Overview
Show others...
2023 (English)In: Energies, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 16, no 13, article id 4850Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The journey towards sustainable transportation has significantly increased the grid penetration of electric vehicles (EV) around the world. The connection of EVs to the power grid poses a series of new challenges for network operators, such as network loading, voltage profile perturbation, voltage unbalance, and other power quality issues. This paper presents a coalescence of knowledge on the impact that electro-mobility can impose on the grid, and identifies gaps for further research. Further, the study investigates the impact of electric vehicle charging on the medium-voltage network and low-voltage distribution network, keeping in mind the role of network operators, utilities, and customers. From this, the impacts, challenges, and recommendations are summarized. This paper will be a valuable resource to research entities, industry professionals, and network operators, as a ready reference of all possible power quality challenges posed by electro-mobility on the distribution network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
electric vehicle, harmonics, light flicker, power quality, voltage unbalance
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-99488 (URN)10.3390/en16134850 (DOI)001028620400001 ()2-s2.0-85164930081 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 47904-1
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-08-11 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-08-11 Created: 2023-08-11 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Sutaria, J., Rönnberg, S. & Espín-Delgado, Á. (2022). Analysis of supraharmonics in a three-phase frame. Electric power systems research, 203, Article ID 107668.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of supraharmonics in a three-phase frame
2022 (English)In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 203, article id 107668Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interaction in the supraharmonic range of 1-ϕ device connected in 1-ϕ or 3-ϕ installations will differ according to the design of the installation. Power factor corrected devices employing switched mode power supplies produce supraharmonics in the range 2–150 kHz. The impact of e.g. voltage unbalance, load unbalance and conductor crosstalk on supraharmonics from these devices connected in a 3-ϕ installation are still somewhat unknown. The paper aims to show with measurements and mathematical models the impact of voltage unbalance, load unbalance, and conductor crosstalk on supraharmonics. The impact of voltage unbalance for constant power loads was seen to increase the emission of supraharmonics. Two new terms induced primary and induced secondary emission showing the impact of conductor crosstalk have been introduced. The induced primary emission leads to an increase in the self-emission of the device. The induced secondary emission on the other hand influences the propagation of the emission. The impact of the voltage unbalance, load unbalance, and conductor crosstalk on the addition of supraharmonics emission in the neutral conductor is shown.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Load unbalance, Neutral conductor, Power quality, Supraharmonics, Switching frequency, Voltage unbalance
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87953 (URN)10.1016/j.epsr.2021.107668 (DOI)000744268600005 ()2-s2.0-85119262879 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 43090-2
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-11-19 (beamah)

Available from: 2021-11-19 Created: 2021-11-19 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Espin Delgado, A., Sutaria, J., de Oliveira, R. A. & Rönnberg, S. (2022). Application of Clustering and Dimensionality Reduction Methods for Finding Patterns on Supraharmonics Data. In: 2022 20th International Conference on Harmonics & Quality of Power (ICHQP) Proceedings: “Power Quality in the Energy Transition”. Paper presented at 20th International Conference on Harmonics & Quality of Power (ICHQP 2022), Naples, Italy, May 29 - June 1, 2022. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of Clustering and Dimensionality Reduction Methods for Finding Patterns on Supraharmonics Data
2022 (English)In: 2022 20th International Conference on Harmonics & Quality of Power (ICHQP) Proceedings: “Power Quality in the Energy Transition”, IEEE, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Supraharmonics (waveform distortion between 2 and 150 kHz) proliferate in electrical installations due to the increasing use of power electronics converters and power-line communication. Due to the wide range that the supraharmonics cover and the high frequency resolution needed to measure them, a considerable amount of data is acquired. The analysis is usually done manually by experts. More efficient methods for data mapping and analysis are needed. Machine learning methods are explored in this paper for the analysis of supraharmonics data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022
Series
International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, ISSN 1540-6008, E-ISSN 2164-0610
Keywords
clustering, data analysis, high-frequency harmonics, machine learning, power quality, supraharmonics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92099 (URN)10.1109/ICHQP53011.2022.9808529 (DOI)000844604500016 ()2-s2.0-85133753205 (Scopus ID)
Conference
20th International Conference on Harmonics & Quality of Power (ICHQP 2022), Naples, Italy, May 29 - June 1, 2022
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 43090-2, 42979-1
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-6654-1639-9

Available from: 2022-07-07 Created: 2022-07-07 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Sutaria, J., Espin Delgado, A. & Rönnberg, S. (2022). Measurements and modeling of the frequency behavior of residual current devices- from 4 Hz to 40 kHz. Electric power systems research, 209, Article ID 108052.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measurements and modeling of the frequency behavior of residual current devices- from 4 Hz to 40 kHz
2022 (English)In: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 209, article id 108052Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Residual current devices (RCDs) are a common means of protection against shock due to indirect contact in low voltage (LV) systems. Due to the increasing penetration of power electronics equipment in LV systems, higher amounts of waveform distortion at a broad range of frequencies, from dc, subharmonics up to hundreds of kHz (supraharmonics), are expected to be present both during normal operation and during faults. The standardization committees and manufacturers have responded to this challenge by proposing different types of RCDs that are expected to function under given conditions of fault current waveform. However, subharmonic and supraharmonic frequency components are not considered in the standards for most of the RCD types. This article studies the effect of these frequency components on RCDs type AC, A, B and F. An assessment is made in terms of two types of RCD failure: blinding and nuisance tripping, for which both magnitude of the current and breaking time is considered. A frequency mapping of the RCDs is performed, and an assessment of these results based on the frequency-dependent response of the human body to currents is performed. Finally, a frequency model for RCDs type A, F and B is developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Frequency response, Harmonics, Leakage current, Power quality, Residual current devices, Supraharmonics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90583 (URN)10.1016/j.epsr.2022.108052 (DOI)000797729900001 ()2-s2.0-85129532678 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-05-09 (sofila);

Funder: Energiforsk

Available from: 2022-05-09 Created: 2022-05-09 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Espin Delgado, A. & Rönnberg, S. (2022). Modeling and Analysis of Supraharmonic Propagation for Stochastic Studies. IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, 37(6), 4899-4910
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and Analysis of Supraharmonic Propagation for Stochastic Studies
2022 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 4899-4910Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Supraharmonic (SH) propagation depends on the impedance of both the grid and the devices connected to it. Few attempts to quantify the impact of the customer's load variability have been done. The interest of grid operators is in counteracting the SH propagation upstream to maintain power quality. Quantifying the impact of impedance on supraharmonic propagation gives information to strategically counteract this propagation to the grid. This article presents a method for analysis of SH propagation that uses a stochastic approach to describe the impact of low-voltage (LV) loads. Scenarios of a strong and a weak grid are presented to study the impact of reinforcement grid measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022
Keywords
high-frequency distortion, power distribution, power quality, power system harmonics, supraharmonics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90023 (URN)10.1109/tpwrd.2022.3162712 (DOI)000891435100038 ()2-s2.0-85127466907 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-11-28 (joosat);

Available from: 2022-03-31 Created: 2022-03-31 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Espin Delgado, A. (2022). Propagation of Supraharmonics in Low-Voltage Networks. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Propagation of Supraharmonics in Low-Voltage Networks
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The need for measures towards a sustainable use of energy has incited the proliferation of devices and systems for the efficient use of electricity. Energy-efficient appliances, equipment for the electrification of transportation, electricity generators from renewable energy sources, and communication protocols, e.g., for smart metering are sources of supraharmonic distortion in electrical networks. Supraharmonics are voltage and current waveform distortion in the frequency range from 2 up to 150 kHz.

The increase in sources of supraharmonics in the last decades and the propagation of this type of distortion have triggered a variety of unwanted consequences (interference) in the electrical networks. Interference associated to supraharmonics such as audible noise, degradation or failure in the operation of electrical equipment, and breakdown of insulation materials, have been reported around the world. A standardized framework for supraharmonics as a power quality phenomenon that involves both grid operators and equipment manufacturers is needed to limit these interferences. The limits to be set shall not hinder the modernization of the electrical system and the consequential energy transition.

There are gaps in the standardization framework for supraharmonics as a power quality phenomenon. The study of supraharmonics as a power quality parameter should consider variables that affect emission levels and propagation of supraharmonics. At the same time, an assessment of the severity of given supraharmonics levels regarding their consequences is needed to settle realistic reference levels. Deterministic methods have been generally used to study supraharmonic propagation but they might not be suitable when considering many possible scenarios.

This research introduces forefront methods and results on the study of supraharmonics emission, propagation, and consequences. The study has two focal points: 1) to study the impact of the impedance of the grid and low-voltage devices on the emission and propagation of supraharmonics; 2) to assess the severity of propagated supraharmonics in terms of the characteristics of the distortion and the probability of interference. Experimental and theoretical case studies are built to carry out the research. Measured and synthetic signals representative of supraharmonic distortion present in low-voltage networks are used.

The main results of this research are summarized as:

The levels of emitted and propagated supraharmonics depend on the impedance of the grid, the emitting device and the neighboring devices. Resonance can lead to significant levels of supraharmonics anywhere in the grid. The variability and diversity of low-voltage devices lead to high uncertainty in the estimation of their impedance. Stochastic methods are recommended to assess the probability of interference.

Different attributes of supraharmonics are responsible for different interference phenomena. Indications of the severity of supraharmonics attributes are given for three phenomena: audible noise, negative impacton residual current devices, and light flicker of LED lamps.

This research contributes to the establishment of supraharmonics as a power quality phenomenon with standardized solutions. It introduces methods for the assessment of: 1) supraharmonic emission from installations needed to recommend planning levels; 2) supraharmonic propagation in low-voltage networks, and 3) the probability of interference needed to define reference levels.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2022
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
supraharmonics, waveform distortion, low-voltage, high-frequency harmonics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93508 (URN)978-91-8048-176-2 (ISBN)978-91-8048-177-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-12-05, Hörsal A, Luleå tekniska universitet, Skellefteå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-10-10 Created: 2022-10-07 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Sutaria, J., Espin Delgado, A. & Rönnberg, S. (2022). Supraharmonics within a Datacenter-Emission and Propagation. In: 2022 20th International Conference on Harmonics & Quality of Power (ICHQP) Proceedings: “Power Quality in the Energy Transition”. Paper presented at 20th International Conference on Harmonics & Quality of Power (ICHQP 2022), Naples, Italy, May 29 - June 1, 2022. IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supraharmonics within a Datacenter-Emission and Propagation
2022 (English)In: 2022 20th International Conference on Harmonics & Quality of Power (ICHQP) Proceedings: “Power Quality in the Energy Transition”, IEEE, 2022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The reliability of the electrical and cooling systems is of utmost importance for the uninterrupted operation of the data center information technology (IT) load. The electrical distribution of the data center includes many subsystems starting with the utility and building transformers, uninterruptible power supply (UPS), power distribution units (PDUs), and power supplies ultimately powering the fans and the internal components of IT equipment. The various converters in data centers emit switching frequency residue due to PWM (pulse width modulation) techniques. The switching frequency range falls within the supraharmonic range, i.e., 2 to 150 kHz. This paper aims to show, with measurements, the different types of supraharmonic emissions measured in the data center, and the difference between their maximum and average magnitudes. The paper shows a method to identify the equipment emitting supraharmonic emission and possible disturbances caused by it. The paper traces the propagation of supraharmonic emission from the source through the transformer to the grid. Lastly, a comparison of measurements is made with the compatibility levels given by standard IEC 61000-2-2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2022
Series
International Conference on Harmonics and Quality of Power, ISSN 1540-6008, E-ISSN 2164-0610
Keywords
Data center, Information technology, Power quality, Power supplies, Pulse Width Modulation, Supraharmonics
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Energy Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-92095 (URN)10.1109/ICHQP53011.2022.9808561 (DOI)000844604500029 ()2-s2.0-85133789667 (Scopus ID)
Conference
20th International Conference on Harmonics & Quality of Power (ICHQP 2022), Naples, Italy, May 29 - June 1, 2022
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 43090-2
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-6654-1639-9

Available from: 2022-07-07 Created: 2022-07-07 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Espin Delgado, A. & Rönnberg, S. (2021). Assessment of Grid Impedance Impact On Supraharmonic Propagation. In: CIRED 2021 - The 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution: . Paper presented at 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2021), Online, September 20-23, 2021 (pp. 688-692). Institution of Engineering and Technology, Article ID 0073.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Grid Impedance Impact On Supraharmonic Propagation
2021 (English)In: CIRED 2021 - The 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021, p. 688-692, article id 0073Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Supraharmonic (SH) propagation is determined by the impedance of both the grid and the devices connected to it. Few attempts to characterize this combined dependency have been done. The interest of grid operators is in counteracting the propagation of SHs upstream to maintain power quality. Characterizing the impact of impedance on SH propagation gives information to strategically counteract this propagation to the upstream grid. This paper presents an experimental case study for the assessment of the sensitivity of SH propagation to changes in impedance of the grid at the delivery point. The results are then compared to the changes of SH propagation provoked by the connection of low-voltage (LV) equipment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021
Keywords
Supraharmonics, Impedance, Propagation, Power quality
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88911 (URN)10.1049/icp.2021.1816 (DOI)
Conference
26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED 2021), Online, September 20-23, 2021
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-83953-591-8 (elektroniskt)

Available from: 2022-01-25 Created: 2022-01-25 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
Nakhodchi, N., Bollen, M., Espin Delgado, A. & Rönnberg, S. (2021). Deviation From Linear Summation Law For Large Number of Homogeneous LED Lamps. In: CIRED 2021 - The 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution: . Paper presented at International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED), Online, September 20-23, 2021 (pp. 683-687). Institution of Engineering and Technology, Article ID 0072.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deviation From Linear Summation Law For Large Number of Homogeneous LED Lamps
2021 (English)In: CIRED 2021 - The 26th International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution, Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021, p. 683-687, article id 0072Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institution of Engineering and Technology, 2021
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Electric Power Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90028 (URN)10.1049/icp.2021.1815 (DOI)
Conference
International Conference and Exhibition on Electricity Distribution (CIRED), Online, September 20-23, 2021
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-83953-591-8 (elektronisk)

Available from: 2022-03-31 Created: 2022-03-31 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6074-8633

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