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Publications (10 of 23) Show all publications
Knott, L., Litchfield, D., Donovan, T. & Marsh, J. E. (2024). False memory-guided eye movements: insights from a DRM-Saccade paradigm. Memory
Open this publication in new window or tab >>False memory-guided eye movements: insights from a DRM-Saccade paradigm
2024 (English)In: Memory, ISSN 0965-8211, E-ISSN 1464-0686Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The Deese-Roediger and McDermott (DRM) paradigm and visually guided saccade tasks are both prominent research tools in their own right. This study introduces a novel DRM-Saccade paradigm, merging both methodologies. We used rule-based saccadic eye movements whereby participants were presented with items at test and were asked to make a saccade to the left or right of the item to denote a recognition or non-recognition decision. We measured old/new recognition decisions and saccadic latencies. Experiment 1 used a pro/anti saccade task to a single target. We found slower saccadic latencies for correct rejection of critical lures, but no latency difference between correct recognition of studied items and false recognition of critical lures. Experiment 2 used a two-target saccade task and also measured corrective saccades. Findings corroborated those from Experiment 1. Participants adjusted their initial decisions to increase accurate recognition of studied items and rejection of unrelated lures but there were no such corrections for critical lures. We argue that rapid saccades indicate cognitive processing driven by familiarity thresholds. These occur before slower source-monitoring is able to process any conflict. The DRM-Saccade task could effectively track real-time cognitive resource use during recognition decisions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2024
Keywords
DRM paradigm, false memory, eye saccades, Recognition accuracy
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-104287 (URN)10.1080/09658211.2024.2307921 (DOI)001152518000001 ()
Note

Full text license: CC BY-NC-ND

Available from: 2024-02-15 Created: 2024-02-15 Last updated: 2024-02-15
Linklater, R. D., Judge, J., Sörqvist, P. & Marsh, J. E. (2023). Auditory distraction of vocal-motor behaviour by different components of song: testing an interference-by-process account. Journal of Cognitive Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Auditory distraction of vocal-motor behaviour by different components of song: testing an interference-by-process account
2023 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The process-oriented account of auditory distraction suggests that task-disruption is a consequence of the joint action of task- and sound-related processes. Here, four experiments put this view to the test by examining the extent to which to-be-ignored melodies (with or without lyrics) influence vocal-motor processing. Using song retrieval tasks (i.e., reproduction of melodies or lyrics from long-term memory), the results revealed a pattern of disruption that was consistent with an interference-by-process view: disruption depended jointly on the nature of the vocal-motor retrieval (e.g., melody retrieval via humming vs. spoken lyrics) and the characteristics of the sound (whether it contained lyrics and was familiar to the participants). Furthermore, the sound properties, influential in disrupting song reproduction, were not influential for disrupting visual-verbal short-term memory—a task that is arguably underpinned by non-semantic vocal-motor planning processes. Generally, these results cohere better with the process-oriented view, in comparison with competing accounts (e.g., interference-by-content).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Music performance, Vocal motor-planning, Auditory distraction, Interference-by-process
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103321 (URN)10.1080/20445911.2023.2284404 (DOI)001115753000001 ()2-s2.0-85179921440 (Scopus ID)
Note

License full text: CC BY-4.0

Available from: 2023-12-15 Created: 2023-12-15 Last updated: 2024-02-09
Sebalo, I., Ball, L. J., Marsh, J. E., Morley, A. M., Richardson, B. H., Taylor, P. J. & Threadgold, E. (2023). Conspiracy theories: why they are believed and how they can be challenged. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 35(4), 383-400
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conspiracy theories: why they are believed and how they can be challenged
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592X, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 383-400Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The current study aimed: (i) to identify personal characteristics associated with endorsing conspiracy theories; and (ii) to investigate methods for dispelling conspiracy beliefs. Participants were shown a single conspiracy theory and they also completed questionnaires about their reasoning skills, types of information processing (System 1 vs. System 2), endorsement of paranormal beliefs, locus of control and pattern perception. To challenge the endorsement of the conspiracy, participants read either: (i) neutral information; (ii) a critical analysis of the vignette; (iii) a critical analysis of the vignette with discussion of realistic consequences; or (iv) a critical analysis of the vignette with “feeling of control” priming. Only addressing the consequences of the conspiracy theory decreased its endorsement. Furthermore, only type of information processing and belief in paranormal phenomena, were associated with endorsement of the conspiracy. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies and theories of conspiratorial ideation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
belief in the paranormal, conspiracy belief, Conspiracy theories, interventions, System 1 versus System 2 processing
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-97033 (URN)10.1080/20445911.2023.2198064 (DOI)000970421900001 ()2-s2.0-85152384247 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-05-08 (hanlid)

Available from: 2023-05-08 Created: 2023-05-08 Last updated: 2023-05-08Bibliographically approved
Marsh, J. E., Vachon, F., Sörqvist, P., Marsja, E., Röer, J. P., Richardson, B. H. & Körning-Ljungberg, J. (2023). Irrelevant changing-state vibrotactile stimuli disrupt verbal serial recall: implications for theories of interference in short-term memory. Journal of Cognitive Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Irrelevant changing-state vibrotactile stimuli disrupt verbal serial recall: implications for theories of interference in short-term memory
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

What causes interference in short-term memory? We report the novel finding that immediate memory for visually-presented verbal items is sensitive to disruption from task-irrelevant vibrotactile stimuli. Specifically, short-term memory for a visual sequence is disrupted by a concurrently presented sequence of vibrations, but only when the vibrotactile sequence entails change (when the sequence “jumps” between the two hands). The impact on visual-verbal serial recall was similar in magnitude to that for auditory stimuli (Experiment 1). Performance of the missing item task, requiring recall of item-identity rather than item-order, was unaffected by changing-state vibrotactile stimuli (Experiment 2), as with changing-state auditory stimuli. Moreover, the predictability of the changing-state sequence did not modulate the magnitude of the effect, arguing against an attention-capture conceptualisation (Experiment 3). Results support the view that interference in short-term memory is produced by conflict between incompatible, amodal serial-ordering processes (interference-by-process) rather than interference between similar representational codes (interference-by-content).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Short-term memory, cross-modal interference, vibrotactile distraction, auditory distraction, modality
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-96995 (URN)10.1080/20445911.2023.2198065 (DOI)2-s2.0-85152445126 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0205Swedish Research Council, (2015-01116, 421-2011-1782)
Note

Funder: Bial Foundation (201/20); Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (2020–05626); Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (2211-0505)

Licens fulltext: CC BY License

Available from: 2023-05-03 Created: 2023-05-03 Last updated: 2023-05-08
Perham, N., Begum, F. & Marsh, J. E. (2023). The Categorical Deviation Effect May Be Underpinned by Attentional Capture: Preliminary Evidence from the Incidental Recognition of Distracters. Auditory Perception & Cognition, 6(1-2), 20-51
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Categorical Deviation Effect May Be Underpinned by Attentional Capture: Preliminary Evidence from the Incidental Recognition of Distracters
2023 (English)In: Auditory Perception & Cognition, ISSN 2574-2442, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 20-51Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The performance of a visual focal task is appreciably disrupted by an unexpected change (or deviation) in the properties of a task irrelevant auditory background. A vast amount of evidence suggests that a change in the acoustic properties of sound disrupts performance via attentional capture. However, an emerging body of evidence suggests that the disruption of task performance by a change in semantic category within a stream of sounds does not behave the same and is therefore not produced by attentional capture. This preliminary study aimed to further investigate whether the disruption produced by a categorical deviant was underpinned by attentional capture. In a single experiment, participants were presented with an irrelevant sound stream while they memorized a categorized list for free recall. We examined whether free recall performance was disrupted by an unexpected change in category within the sound and later investigated, via a surprise recognition test, whether participants had superior memory for deviant items as compared to items from the same positions in control sequences. Results revealed that the categorical deviation effect manifested in poorer free recall performance. Additionally, post-study, participants demonstrated better recognition memory for deviant items compared to control items. On the assumption that explicit recognition requires attentional encoding of deviant items, our results yield evidence that the categorical deviation effect may indeed be produced via attentional capture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Auditory distraction, attentional capture, semantic processing, explicit recognition
National Category
Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-102470 (URN)10.1080/25742442.2023.2167448 (DOI)
Note

Godkänd;2023;Nivå 0;2023-11-17 (joosat);

CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 License

Available from: 2023-11-17 Created: 2023-11-17 Last updated: 2023-11-17Bibliographically approved
Richardson, B., McCulloch, K. C., Ball, L. J. & Marsh, J. E. (2023). The Fate of the Unattended Revisited: Can Irrelevant Speech Prime the Non-dominant Interpretation of Homophones?. Auditory Perception & Cognition, 6(1-2), 72-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Fate of the Unattended Revisited: Can Irrelevant Speech Prime the Non-dominant Interpretation of Homophones?
2023 (English)In: Auditory Perception & Cognition, ISSN 2574-2442, Vol. 6, no 1-2, p. 72-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Whether the post-categorical, semantic properties of task-irrelevant speech are processed has been a source of debate between two central accounts. The first, a structural account, proposes that the semantic content of irrelevant speech is filtered out early on, and thus remains unprocessed. The second account proposes that the semantic content of speech is, in fact, processed and can influence later behavior. The present research offers a resolution between these two prominent accounts by examining whether semantic processing of task-irrelevant speech occurs despite explicit instructions to ignore it. During a visual-verbal serial recall paradigm, participants were auditorily presented with non-dominant homophones plus their close associates, or close associates without the homophone itself and asked to ignore this irrelevant speech containing these semantic primes. In a subsequent “unrelated” phase, we assessed whether the spelling of homophones was influenced by the irrelevant speech that had occurred earlier in the serial recall phase. We found evidence of semantic priming in conditions wherein the homophone was present, as well as conditions wherein only associates of the homophone were present. Regardless of whether they were presented, homophones were more likely to be spelt in accordance with their non-dominant meaning, and most participants did not report awareness of this fact. We suggest that semantic processing of irrelevant speech occurs even when there is an explicit direction to ignore it and does not result in any material disruptive effect on serial recall performance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
Keywords
Auditory distraction, semantic processing, homophone priming, irrelevant speech
National Category
Applied Psychology General Language Studies and Linguistics
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-93283 (URN)10.1080/25742442.2022.2124799 (DOI)
Note

Godkänd;2023;Nivå 0;2023-07-14 (sofila);

Funder: School of Psychology and Computer Science, University of Central Lancashire

Available from: 2022-09-28 Created: 2022-09-28 Last updated: 2023-07-14Bibliographically approved
Andersson, H., Holmgren, M., Sörqvist, P., Threadgold, E., Beaman, P., Ball, L. & Marsh, J. E. (2023). The Negative Footprint Illusion is Exacerbated by the Numerosity of Environment-Friendly Additions: Unveiling the Underpinning Mechanisms. Journal of Cognitive Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Negative Footprint Illusion is Exacerbated by the Numerosity of Environment-Friendly Additions: Unveiling the Underpinning Mechanisms
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103322 (URN)
Available from: 2023-12-15 Created: 2023-12-15 Last updated: 2024-02-15
Rettie, L., Potter, R. F., Brewer, G., Degno, F., Vachon, F., Hughes, R. W. & Marsh, J. E. (2023). Warning—taboo words ahead! Avoiding attentional capture by spoken taboo distractors. Journal of Cognitive Psychology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Warning—taboo words ahead! Avoiding attentional capture by spoken taboo distractors
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Cognitive Psychology, ISSN 2044-5911, E-ISSN 2044-592XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

We examine whether the disruption of serial short-term memory (STM) by spoken taboo distractors is due to attentional diversion and unrelated to the underlying disruptive effect of sound on serial STM more generally, which we have argued is due to order cues arising from the automatic pre-categorical processing of acoustic changes in the sound conflicting with serial–order processing within the memory task (interference-by-process). We test whether the taboo-distractor effect is, unlike effects attributable to interference-by-process, amenable to top-down control. Experiment 1 replicated the taboo-distractor effect and showed that it is not merely a valence effect. However, promoting cognitive control by increasing focal task-load did not attenuate the effect. However, foreknowledge of the distractors did eliminate the taboo-distractor effect while having no effect on disruption by neutral words (Experiment 2). We conclude that the taboo-distractor effect results from a controllable attentional-diversion mechanism distinct from the effect of any acoustically-changing sound.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
auditory distraction, cognitive control, irrelevant speech, serial recall, taboo words
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Applied Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-103467 (URN)10.1080/20445911.2023.2285860 (DOI)2-s2.0-85179913284 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funder: Bial Foundation (201/20);

Full text license: CC BY

Available from: 2024-01-04 Created: 2024-01-04 Last updated: 2024-01-04
Röer, J. P., Bell, R., Buchner, A., Saint-Aubin, J., Sonier, R.-P., Marsh, J. E., . . . Arnström, S. (2022). A Multilingual Preregistered Replication of the Semantic Mismatch Effect on Serial Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, 48(7), 966-974
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Multilingual Preregistered Replication of the Semantic Mismatch Effect on Serial Recall
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 48, no 7, p. 966-974Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Visual-verbal serial recall is disrupted when task-irrelevant background speech has to be ignored. Contrary to previous suggestion, it has recently been shown that the magnitude of disruption may be accentuated by the semantic properties of the irrelevant speech. Sentences ending with unexpected words that did not match the preceding semantic context were more disruptive than sentences ending with expected words. This particular instantiation of a deviation effect has been termed the semantic mismatch effect. To establish a new phenomenon, it is necessary to show that the effect can be inde-pendently replicated and does not depend on specific boundary conditions such as the language of the stimulus material. Here we report a preregistered replication of the semantic mismatch effect in which we examined the effect of unexpected words in 4 different languages (English, French, German, and Swedish) across 4 different laboratories. Participants performed a serial recall task while ignoring sen-tences with expected or unexpected words that were recorded using text-to-speech software. Independent of language, sentences ending with unexpected words were more disruptive than sentences ending with expected words. In line with previous results, there was no evidence of habituation of the semantic mismatch effect in the form of a decrease in disruption with repeated exposure to the occur-rence of unexpected words. The successful replication and extension of the effect to different languages indicates the expression of a general and robust mechanism that reacts to violations of expectancies based on the semantic content of the irrelevant speech.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2022
Keywords
auditory distraction, irrelevant speech, selective attention, working memory
National Category
Psychology
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-88083 (URN)10.1037/xlm0001066 (DOI)000735828200001 ()34647788 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85119254976 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2022;Nivå 2;2022-08-18 (hanlid);

Funder: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (RO 4972/1-1); Natural Sciences and Engineering ResearchCouncil of Canada (RGPIN-2015-04416)

Available from: 2021-11-30 Created: 2021-11-30 Last updated: 2022-08-18Bibliographically approved
Littlefair, Z., Vachon, F., Ball, L. J., Robinson, N. & Marsh, J. E. (2022). Acoustic, and Categorical, Deviation Effects are Produced by Different Mechanisms: Evidence from Additivity and Habituation. Auditory Perception & Cognition, 5(1-2), 1-24
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acoustic, and Categorical, Deviation Effects are Produced by Different Mechanisms: Evidence from Additivity and Habituation
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2022 (English)In: Auditory Perception & Cognition, E-ISSN 2574-2450, Vol. 5, no 1-2, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sounds that deviate, acoustically or semantically, from prevailing auditory backgrounds disrupt ongoing mental activity. An acoustic deviant is held to capture attention, but doubt has been cast on the attentional nature of the semantic, categorical deviation effect. Unlike the acoustical deviation effect, which is typically amenable to top-down cognitive control, the categorical deviation effect is impervious to top-down influences.To shed further light on the mechanisms underpinning acoustic and categorical deviance, we compared the disruptive impact produced by acoustic deviants (change of voice), categorical deviants (change of category) and combined deviants (change of voice and category) randomly inserted into a to-be-ignored sequence while participants performed a visual-verbal serial recall task.In Experiment 1, all deviants disrupted recall, however combined deviants produced greater disruption than acoustic deviants alone. In Experiment 2 only the disruption produced by an acoustic deviant diminished over the course of the experiment. The acoustic and categorical deviation effects combined additively to disrupt performance (Experiment 1) and habituation was only observed for the acoustic deviation effect (Experiment 2).These results gel with the idea that attentional responses to deviants, and habituation thereof (Experiment 2), is a key component of acoustic but not categorical deviation effects. Taken together, these findings support recent assertions that independent mechanisms drive acoustic and categorical deviation effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2022
Keywords
Acoustic deviant, categorical deviant, attentional capture, habituation
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90436 (URN)10.1080/25742442.2022.2063609 (DOI)
Note

Godkänd;2022;Nivå 0;2022-08-22 (hanlid);

Funder: University of Central Lancashire; Bial foundation; Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)

Available from: 2022-05-04 Created: 2022-05-04 Last updated: 2022-08-22Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9494-1287

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