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Allan, J. & Berg, J. (2020). Evaluation of the Momentary Time Scale for Live Loudness Metering. Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, 68(3), 193-222
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the Momentary Time Scale for Live Loudness Metering
2020 (English)In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 0004-7554, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 193-222Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Different ballistic definitions for the momentary time scale used in live loudness measurement were evaluated. Definitions from the ITU and EBU were compared as well as a faster version of the ITU version, two asymmetric time scales and the deprecated ballistics, defined in EBU Tech 3205-E, for peak program meters. The goal was to identify the ballistics definition that would function as the best complementary tool to a short-term time scale. Engineers within the broadcast industry and students in audio technology performed an audio alignment task in a simulated live broadcast environment using one ballistics definition per trial. Fader movements and output levels were recorded. After each trial, a set of assessment scales were rated by the subjects. Some results were: a decay time constant of 250 ms yielded better representation of the low-level parts of the dynamics in the signal compared to a 400-ms time constant; the present ITU version of the momentary time scale yielded an estimated less eye fatigue; effects on the resulting output levels, related the gate in ITU-R BS.1770 in conjunction with live compensation of unadjusted audio material were shown.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2020
Keywords
loudness, loudness meter, loudness metering, live loudness metering, audio level alignment, perceived audio intensity, R 128, loudness, loudnessmätning, loudnessmätare, hörstyrka, mätning av hörstyrka, hörstyrkemätare, ljudnivåmätning, upplevd ljudnivå, upplevd hörstyrka, R 128
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72481 (URN)10.17743/jaes.2020.0003 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2020-05-04
Berg, J. (2019). Concert Hall Acoustics’ Influence on the Tempo of Musical Performances. In: Areti Andreopoulou and Braxton Boren (Ed.), 147th AES Convention: . Paper presented at AES 147th Convention, 16-19 October, 2019, New York, New York, USA. New York: Audio Engineering Society, Inc., Article ID 10240.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concert Hall Acoustics’ Influence on the Tempo of Musical Performances
2019 (English)In: 147th AES Convention / [ed] Areti Andreopoulou and Braxton Boren, New York: Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2019, article id 10240Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The acoustics of a concert hall is an integral and significant part of a musical performance as it affects the artistic decisions made by performer. Still, there are few systematic studies on the phenomenon. In this paper the effect of concert hall acoustics, mainly reverberation, on musical tempo for a selection of different genres and ensemble types is analyzed quantitatively. The study utilizes audio recordings made in a concert hall equipped with a movable ceiling enabling a variable volume and thus a variable reverberation time. The results show that there are cases where the tempo follows a change in acoustics as well as cases where it remains more or less unchanged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2019
Keywords
acoustics, tempo, concert hall, interpretation, performance
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77231 (URN)2-s2.0-85084095694 (Scopus ID)
Conference
AES 147th Convention, 16-19 October, 2019, New York, New York, USA
Note

ISBN för värdpublikation: 978-1-942220-31-2

Available from: 2019-12-20 Created: 2019-12-20 Last updated: 2020-05-12Bibliographically approved
(2019). Invisible Sounds: Piteå Port.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Invisible Sounds: Piteå Port
2019 (English)Artistic output (Refereed)
Keywords
ecological sound art, soundscape, composition, electronic music
National Category
Humanities and the Arts
Research subject
Musical Performance
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75091 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2020-01-09 (svasva)

Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2020-05-19Bibliographically approved
Allan, J. & Berg, J. (2018). Evaluating Live Loudness Meters from Engineers' Actions and Resulting Output Levels. Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, 66(7-8), 556-577
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating Live Loudness Meters from Engineers' Actions and Resulting Output Levels
2018 (English)In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 0004-7554, Vol. 66, no 7-8, p. 556-577Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Qualities of loudness meters were investigated by running a simulated live broadcast show, mixed by subjects with different degrees of audio engineering experience. The subject-induced fader movements and the resulting output levels were analyzed using a general linear mixed model and then interpreted according to a proposed set of quality criteria for live loudness meters. The results show that, for subparts of the program. meters with slower integration lime caused less dispersion of the resulting output levels and a smaller error to a given target level. The varying integration tunes of the meters did not cause any significant differences in reaction time. It is concluded that this type of data may be used in evaluation of loudness meters and the specific study provides insight into the effect of time scales and meter implementation for EBU R 128-compliant meters.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2018
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71367 (URN)10.17743/jaes.2018.0029 (DOI)000447290400004 ()2-s2.0-85052757145 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-10-29 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-10-29 Created: 2018-10-29 Last updated: 2019-09-16Bibliographically approved
Jullander, S., Sundkvist, P., Berg, J., Kjekshus, H. & Nelson, K. (2018). Room for interpretation: methodological aspects of a music research project. Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, 100, 89-115
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Room for interpretation: methodological aspects of a music research project
Show others...
2018 (English)In: Svensk tidskrift för musikforskning, E-ISSN 2002-021X, Vol. 100, p. 89-115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The artistic research project ‘Room for interpretation’ addresses questions concerning the influence of room acoustics on the performance of Western art music from the performers’ perspective. The empirical core of the project is a number of experimental performance sessions carried out in Studio Acusticum, Piteå, a concert hall with mechanically variable acoustics. The authors discuss issues relating to the project’s design and methodology; the focus of the article is thus the research process rather than the results. A presentation of the project, its preconditions, goals, design and methodology is followed by an overview of previous research, mostly in acoustic science, on the same or closely related topics. In the third part of the article, characteristics of the present project are compared to those of the previous studies. In the following part, ’Room for interpretation’ is related to the ongoing discussion on the purposes and means of artistic research. The authors argue that the project, while showing certain similarities to previous studies, differs considerably with respect to aims and important aspects of design, and that its characteristic features agree well with those usually regarded as typical of artistic research. The article concludes with a summary of the most important results concerning: differences between performers’ reactions in the live situation and when listening to their own recordings; differences between chamber ensembles, conducted ensembles and soloists as to the influence of the acoustics on the performance; and the prevalence of sound over other musical parameters in performers’ comments on their recorded performances.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Svenska samfundet för musikforskning, 2018
Keywords
Musical performance, musical interpretation, artistic research, methodology, room acoustics, variable acoustics, Studio Acusticum
National Category
Humanities and the Arts Music Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Musical Performance; Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73286 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, E0191801
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 1;2019-04-10 (svasva)

Available from: 2019-03-23 Created: 2019-03-23 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Röijezon, U., Berg, J., Larsson, A. & Sundkvist, P. (2018). Sitting postures’ effects on movement behavior and musical performance among high string musicians – a pilot study. In: Musicians' Health and Performance 3rd Conference 2018 (MHPC2018): . Paper presented at Musicians' Health and Performance 3rd Conference 2018 (MHPC2018). Helsinki
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sitting postures’ effects on movement behavior and musical performance among high string musicians – a pilot study
2018 (English)In: Musicians' Health and Performance 3rd Conference 2018 (MHPC2018), Helsinki, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The posture has a major influence on the body; e.g., a slumped posture can lead to increased tissue loading but also altered movement behavior. Musicians, including violinists/violists, have a high prevalence of upper body musculoskeletal disorders. Biomechanical risk factors include repetitive movements, altered muscle activation and awkward postures. Changes in posture may have implications for both injury risk and the musical performance. Ideally, a healthy posture leads to the desired qualities of the performance, but this is still to be investigated. This multidisciplinary study takes an initial step to unravel the impact on both movement behavior and musical quality related to playing posture among high string musicians.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Helsinki: , 2018
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78356 (URN)
Conference
Musicians' Health and Performance 3rd Conference 2018 (MHPC2018)
Available from: 2020-04-06 Created: 2020-04-06 Last updated: 2020-04-06
Nykänen, A., Löfdahl, M., Johannesson, T. & Berg, J. (2017). Do In-ear monitors protect musicians' hearing?. In: 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017: . Paper presented at 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017,Berlin, Germany, 20-23 May 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do In-ear monitors protect musicians' hearing?
2017 (English)In: 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In-ear monitors for live performances are commonly considered to give better sound quality than loudspeaker monitors. They are also often assumed to reduce sound exposure. Because of lack of evidence for this, sound exposure for pop/rock/jazz musicians was compared between performances with in-ear and loudspeaker monitors. Equivalent sound pressure levels at the musicians' ears were 94 to 105 dBA with loudspeaker and 86 to 108 dBA with in-ear monitors. Many participants used earplugs when using loudspeaker monitors. Therefore, the recommendation, from a pure hearing protection perspective, is to use loudspeaker monitors and earplugs. However, the large spread in levels between musicians using in-ear monitors suggests that with better training and measurements of sound exposure, in-ear monitors could be used safely.

National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Audio Technology; Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65103 (URN)2-s2.0-85026655617 (Scopus ID)
Conference
142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017,Berlin, Germany, 20-23 May 2017
Available from: 2017-08-15 Created: 2017-08-15 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Berg, J., Johannesson, T., Löfdahl, M. & Nykänen, A. (2017). In-ear vs. loudspeaker monitoring for live Sound and the effect on audio quality attributes and musical performance. In: 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017: . Paper presented at 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017,Berlin, Germany, 20-23 May 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In-ear vs. loudspeaker monitoring for live Sound and the effect on audio quality attributes and musical performance
2017 (English)In: 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017, 2017Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A successful performance of live music is dependent on how well musicians can hear themselves and the other members of the ensemble. Sound reinforcement systems can offer monitoring either by on-stage loudspeakers or in-ear headphones. These two monitoring conditions were compared to search for perceived auditory differences that affect parts of musical performance. Four jazz/pop/rock bands made live performances where monitor sound was provided to the musicians. Each band repeated their performance, changing from one monitoring condition to the other. After every performance, the musicians responded to questionnaires covering musical performance and audio quality. Experts also assessed recordings of the performances. Results show that perceived differences exist in audio quality and musical performance between loudspeaker monitors and in-ear headphone monitors.

National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Audio Technology; Engineering Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65100 (URN)2-s2.0-85026625310 (Scopus ID)
Conference
142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017,Berlin, Germany, 20-23 May 2017
Available from: 2017-08-15 Created: 2017-08-15 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Van-Eckmann, N. (2017). Wildlife Sound Recording: Dealing With The Distance And On-Axis Issues. (Licentiate dissertation). Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wildlife Sound Recording: Dealing With The Distance And On-Axis Issues
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In natural history filmmaking recording fauna vocalisation often produces difficult challenges especially when recording sound from a distance. The camera in many cases is able to solve these problems due to lens changes, but the microphone cannot do this, which creates major problems when combining sound and picture. This thesis using a multi disciplinary approach, looks at these problems in particular the 'Distance' and 'On-Axis' issues and attempts to solve them using both a theoretical and practical approach. The thesis consists of two parts, part one the theoretical section discusses the idiosyncrasies of natural history sound recording giving examples where the problems of actual situations have been resolved. Part two is an applied method or practical experimentation using technology designed to test certain theories in effectively dealing with the 'Distance' and 'On-Axis' issues. The practical experimentation takes place at various locations using avian subjects to demonstrate the problems and solutions when recording wildlife vocalisation. As a result of the tests, a remote-controlled microphone operating system was developed and tested in the field to ascertain its capabilities. Although still a prototype it has the potential through further development, to be a useful technological instrument for recording wildlife sound.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2017. p. 240
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified Telecommunications Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63263 (URN)978-91-7583-906-6 (ISBN)978-91-7583-907-3 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-06-20, L165, School of Music, Piteå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-05-10 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Berg, J. & Lefford, N. (2016). Adapting audio quality assessment procedures for engineering practice (ed.). In: (Ed.), 139th Audio Engineering Society International Convention: AES 2015, Jacob Javits Center New York, United States, 29 October - 1 November 2015. Paper presented at Audio Engineering Society International Convention : 29/10/2015 - 01/11/2015. New York: Audio Engineering Society, Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adapting audio quality assessment procedures for engineering practice
2016 (English)In: 139th Audio Engineering Society International Convention: AES 2015, Jacob Javits Center New York, United States, 29 October - 1 November 2015, New York: Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Audio quality is of concern up and down the production chain from content creation to distribution. The technologies employed at each step - equipment, processors like codecs, downmix algorithms and loudspeakers - all are scrutinized for their impact. The now well-established field of audio quality research has developed robust methods for assessments. To form a basis for this work, research has investigated how perceptual dimensions are formed and expressed. The literature includes numerous sonic attributes that may be used to evaluate audio quality. All together, these findings have provided benchmarks and guidelines for improving audio technology, setting standards in the manufacture of sound and recording equipment, and furthering the design of reproduction systems and spaces. They are, however, by comparison rarely used to inform recording and mixing practice. In this paper quality evaluation and mixing practice are compared on selected counts and observations are made on what points these fields may mutually inform one another

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
New York: Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2016
National Category
Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Audio Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-28012 (URN)1a7bcd32-285e-47cd-9520-adf7fbde8ab0 (Local ID)9780000000002 (ISBN)1a7bcd32-285e-47cd-9520-adf7fbde8ab0 (Archive number)1a7bcd32-285e-47cd-9520-adf7fbde8ab0 (OAI)
Conference
Audio Engineering Society International Convention : 29/10/2015 - 01/11/2015
Note

Godkänd; 2016; 20160421 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-06-19Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9021-5424

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