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Decrozant-Triquenaux, J. (2020). High Temperature Tribological Behaviour of PVD Coated Tool Steel and Aluminium under Dry and Lubricated Conditions. Friction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Temperature Tribological Behaviour of PVD Coated Tool Steel and Aluminium under Dry and Lubricated Conditions
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2020 (English)In: Friction, E-ISSN 2223-7690Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Aluminium alloys are commonly used as lightweight materials in the automotive industry. This non-ferrous family of metallic alloys offers a high versatility of properties and designs. To reduce weight and improve safety, high strength-to-weight ratio alloys (e.g. 6XXX and 7XXX), are increasingly implemented in vehicles. However, these alloys exhibit low formability and experience considerable springback during cold forming, and are therefore hot formed. During forming, severe adhesion (i.e. galling) of aluminium onto the die surface takes place. This phenomenon has a detrimental effect on the surface properties, geometrical tolerances of the formed parts and maintenance of the dies. The effect of surface engineering as well as lubricant chemistry on galling has not been sufficiently investigated. DLC and CrN PVD coated steel have been studied to reduce aluminium transfer. However, the interaction between lubricants and PVD coatings during hot forming of aluminium alloys is not yet fully understood. The present study thus aims to characterise the high temperature tribological behaviour of selected PVD coatings and lubricants during sliding against aluminium alloy. The objectives are to first select promising lubricant-coating combinations and then to study their tribological response in a high-temperature reciprocating friction and wear tester. Dry and lubricated tests were carried out at 300°C using a commercial polymer lubricant. Tests using DLC, CrN, CrTiN and CrAlN coated tool steel were compared to uncoated tool steel reference tests. The initial and worn test specimen surfaces were analysed with a 3D optical profiler, SEM and EDS as to understand the wear mechanisms. The results showed formation of tribolayers in the contact zone, reducing both friction and wear. The stability of these layers highly depends on both the coatings’ roughness and chemical affinity towards aluminium. The DLC and CrN coatings combined with the polymer lubricant were the most effective in reducing aluminium transfer.

Keywords
high temperature tribology, aluminium, lubrication, PVD coatings, material transfer, adhesion
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77693 (URN)
Available from: 2020-02-13 Created: 2020-02-13 Last updated: 2020-02-14
Decrozant-Triquenaux, J. (2020). Influence of Lubrication, Tool Steel Composition and Topography on the High Temperature Tribological Behaviour of Aluminium. Friction
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Lubrication, Tool Steel Composition and Topography on the High Temperature Tribological Behaviour of Aluminium
2020 (English)In: Friction, E-ISSN 2223-7690Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

The use of high strength aluminium alloys, such as 6XXX and 7XXX series, is continuously increasing for automotive applications in view of their good strength-to-weight ratio. Their formability at room temperature is limited and they are thus often formed at high temperatures to enable production of complex geometries. Critical challenges during hot forming of aluminium are the occurrence of severe adhesion and material transfer onto the forming tools. This negatively affects the tool life and the quality of the produced parts. In general, the main mechanisms involved in the occurrence of material transfer of aluminium alloys at high temperature are still not clearly understood. Therefore, this study is focussed on understanding of the friction and wear behaviour during interaction of Al6016 alloy and three different tool steels in as-received and polished state. The tribotests were carried out under dry and lubricated conditions, with two distinct lubricants, using a reciprocating friction and wear tester. The worn surfaces were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed a high dependence of friction and wear behaviour on the tool steel roughness as well as on the stability of the lubricant films. Tribolayers were found to develop in the contact zone and their capacity to improve the tribological behaviour is seen to be drastically impacted by the surface roughness of the tool steel. When the tribolayers failed, severe adhesion took place and led to high and unstable friction as well as material transfer to the tool steel.

Keywords
friction, wear, high temperature tribology, aluminium, lubrication, tribolayer
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77692 (URN)
Available from: 2020-02-13 Created: 2020-02-13 Last updated: 2020-02-17
Deng, L., Pelcastre, L., Hardell, J., Prakash, B. & Oldenburg, M. (2019). Numerical investigation of galling in a press hardening experiment with AlSi-coated workpieces. Engineering Failure Analysis, 99, 85-96
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical investigation of galling in a press hardening experiment with AlSi-coated workpieces
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2019 (English)In: Engineering Failure Analysis, ISSN 1350-6307, E-ISSN 1873-1961, Vol. 99, p. 85-96Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Press hardened steels are commonly used as a lightweight choice for manufacturing car components because of the high ratio of strength to weight. The use of ultra-high-strength steels for the design of lightweight vehicles contributes to the reduction of emissions of carbon dioxide while maintaining passenger safety. Stamping tools used in press hardening processes suffer harsh contact conditionsin terms of dramatic temperature changes, cyclic loadings, and complex interactions between coatings and oxidation. In mass production, tool wear is an inevitable problem that increases maintenance costs. Severe adhesive wear, also called galling, substantially occurs in the stamping tool used against Al—Si-coated workpieces. The galling that takes place during press hardening not only degrades the production quality but also shortens the service life of the tool. In order to properly arrange tool maintenance and minimize galling through adjusting process parameters, engineers need to know when and where galling occurs, based on modelling of the galling in press hardening simulations. In order to implement a galling simulation for press hardening, a modified Archard wear model is employed in the present study, which is a contact-mechanics-based model. The specific wear rate in the model is calibrated by the quantitative galling measurements of a high-temperature tribometer test. The tribological test is designed to mimic the press hardening conditions, where the correlations between galling and process parameters such as temperature, pressure, and sliding distance are outlined. The galling simulation is implemented in a full-scale press hardening experiment, and the predicted galling is validated in terms of severe galling positions and galling profiles. The galling profile evolution is correlated to variations in the contact conditions. Uncertainties in the numerical model, such as the choice of penalty scaling factor and friction coefficient, are analysed with a parameter study and discussed. This study demonstrates finite element (FE) simulations involving galling prediction in press hardening so as to improve product development and production efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Contact conditions, High-temperature tribometer, FE simulation, Galling prediction
National Category
Applied Mechanics Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Solid Mechanics; Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73044 (URN)10.1016/j.engfailanal.2019.01.059 (DOI)000464957800008 ()2-s2.0-85061604416 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-02-27 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-02-27 Created: 2019-02-27 Last updated: 2019-05-02Bibliographically approved
Decrozant-Triquenaux, J., Pelcastre, L., Courbon, C., Prakash, B. & Hardell, J. (2019). Tribological Behaviour of PVD Coated Tool Steels in Hot Forming of Aluminium Alloys. In: CHS² 2019 - 7th International Conference on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High Performance Steel: . Paper presented at CHS² 2019 - 7th International Conference on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High Performance Steel, Luleå, Sweden, June 2nd to 5th 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tribological Behaviour of PVD Coated Tool Steels in Hot Forming of Aluminium Alloys
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2019 (English)In: CHS² 2019 - 7th International Conference on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High Performance Steel, 2019Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Aluminium alloys are commonly used as light-weight materials in the automotive industry. Thisnon-ferrous family of metal alloys offers high versatility of properties and designs. In order to reduceweight and improve safety, grades with high strength-to-weight ratio, such as the 6XXX and 7XXXalloy series, are increasingly implemented in vehicles. These alloys, however, exhibit low formabilityand experience considerable springback when formed at low temperatures, and thus have to beformed at elevated temperatures. Severe adhesion and galling are known to be critical tribologicalchallenges in hot forming of aluminium. During the forming operation, adhesion and transfer ofaluminium onto the die surface take place. This phenomenon has a detrimental effect on the surfaceproperties, geometrical tolerances of the formed parts and maintenance of the dies. The influence ofsurface engineering as well as lubricant composition on adhesion and galling has not been sufficientlyinvestigated. Diamond-like-Carbon and Chromium Nitride PVD coatings applied on the toolsteel have shown promising results for reducing aluminium transfer at high-temperatures, especiallyin the presence of a lubricant. However, the interaction between lubricants and PVD coatings duringhot forming of aluminium alloys is not yet fully understood. The present study thus aims at characterisingthe high temperature tribological behaviour of selected PVD coatings and a lubricant duringsliding against an aluminium alloy. The objectives are to select promising lubricant-coating combinationsfor the given application and to study their tribological response in a high-temperature reciprocatingfriction and wear tester. The tests were carried out at 300°C, under dry and lubricatedconditions, in order to study the friction and wear performance. Uncoated tool steel reference testswere performed under dry and lubricated conditions and lubricated tests using DLC, CrN, CrTiNand CrAlN coated tool steel were performed and compared to the reference results. The initial andworn surfaces were analysed with white light 3D optical interferometry, scanning electron microscopy(SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) with a view to understand the wear mechanisms.

Keywords
high temperature tribology, aluminium, lubrication, PVD coatings, material transfer, adhesion
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73799 (URN)
Conference
CHS² 2019 - 7th International Conference on Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High Performance Steel, Luleå, Sweden, June 2nd to 5th 2019
Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2019-08-13
Decrozant-Triquenaux, J., Pelcastre, L., Prakash, B. & Hardell, J. (2018). Effect of Surface Engineered Tool Steels on Frition and Wear During Sliding Against Aluminium at High Temperatures. In: Uppsala University (Ed.), The 18th Nordic Symposium on Tribology – NORDTRIB 2018, Uppsala, Sweden, 18-21 June 2018: . Paper presented at The 18th Nordic Symposium on Tribology – NORDTRIB 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Surface Engineered Tool Steels on Frition and Wear During Sliding Against Aluminium at High Temperatures
2018 (English)In: The 18th Nordic Symposium on Tribology – NORDTRIB 2018, Uppsala, Sweden, 18-21 June 2018 / [ed] Uppsala University, 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Usage of high-strength aluminium alloys is increasing for automotive applications due to high strength-to-weight ratios. Limited formability at room temperature requires hot forming for production of complex geometries. The occurrence of severe adhesion and material transfer negatively affects process economy and there is a need for effective solutions to overcome these issues. This work is focussed on the high-temperature tribological behaviour of Al6016 alloy and uncoated/PVD coated tool steels. Studies were conducted under dry and lubricated conditions using a high-temperature reciprocating tribometer. High friction in dry sliding for uncoated and coated tool steels was observed. Hexagonal boron nitride lubricant was not effective in reducing friction. DLC coating with a polymer lubricant resulted in the lowest friction and minimised material transfer.

Keywords
friction, wear, high temperature, aluminium, lubrication
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73798 (URN)
Conference
The 18th Nordic Symposium on Tribology – NORDTRIB 2018
Available from: 2019-04-30 Created: 2019-04-30 Last updated: 2019-08-13
Deng, L., Pelcastre, L., Hardell, J., Prakash, B. & Oldenburg, M. (2018). Experimental Evaluation of Galling Under Press Hardening Conditions. Tribology letters, 66(3), Article ID 93.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Evaluation of Galling Under Press Hardening Conditions
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2018 (English)In: Tribology letters, ISSN 1023-8883, E-ISSN 1573-2711, Vol. 66, no 3, article id 93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Severe adhesion, also referred to as galling, is a critical problem in press hardening, especially in stamping tools used for hot forming of Al–Si-coated ultra-high strength steel. Galling is known to develop rapidly on the tool surface and it negatively affects the quality of the formed products. Earlier research on this topic has focused on the galling initiation. However, studies on the galling development during extended sliding and the corresponding quantitative measurement still lack depth. In the present study, a tribological test is established to study the galling development under press hardening conditions. The tribological test set-up aims to simulate extended sliding between the Al–Si-coated boron steels and the tool die material. The contact conditions in the interface are studied by a numerical model of the tribological test. The friction coefficients and material transfer are discussed taking into account the variation of the different test conditions. Using the results from the tribological tests, the galling simulation is performed in the numerical model. A geometry-updated sample based on the galling (transferred material build-up) height is simulated and the consequent pressure fluctuation is obtained in the numerical model. This contributes to the explanation of the severe transferred material accumulation during the test.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Machine Elements; Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-69943 (URN)10.1007/s11249-018-1023-0 (DOI)000436540000001 ()2-s2.0-85049356784 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-06-27 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-06-27 Created: 2018-06-27 Last updated: 2018-07-23Bibliographically approved
Deng, L., Pelcastre, L., Hardell, J., Prakash, B. & Oldenburg, M. (2017). A Tribological Test under Press Hardening Conditions for Galling Research. In: Mats Oldenburg, Braham Prakash, Kurt Steinhoff (Ed.), 6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2: June 4-7 2017, Atlanta, Georgia, USA : proceedings. Paper presented at 6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2, Atlanta, Georgia, 4-7 June 2017 (pp. 453-460). Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology, AIST
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Tribological Test under Press Hardening Conditions for Galling Research
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2017 (English)In: 6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2: June 4-7 2017, Atlanta, Georgia, USA : proceedings / [ed] Mats Oldenburg, Braham Prakash, Kurt Steinhoff, Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology, AIST , 2017, p. 453-460Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology, AIST, 2017
Series
CHS2-series ; 6
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear) Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Machine Elements; Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-64313 (URN)978-1-935117-66-7 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2, Atlanta, Georgia, 4-7 June 2017
Available from: 2017-06-21 Created: 2017-06-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Pelcastre, L., Heikkilä, I., Hardell, J. & Prakash, B. (2017). High Temperature Tribological Behaviour of Thermal-Spray Coated Toll Steels Sliding Against Al-Si Coated Ultra-High Strength Steel. In: Mats Oldenburg, Braham Prakash, Kurt Steinhoff (Ed.), 6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2: June 4-7 2017, Atlanta, Georgia, USA : proceedings. Paper presented at 6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2, Atlanta, Georgia, 4-7 June 2017 (pp. 223-232). Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology, AIST
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Temperature Tribological Behaviour of Thermal-Spray Coated Toll Steels Sliding Against Al-Si Coated Ultra-High Strength Steel
2017 (English)In: 6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2: June 4-7 2017, Atlanta, Georgia, USA : proceedings / [ed] Mats Oldenburg, Braham Prakash, Kurt Steinhoff, Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology, AIST , 2017, p. 223-232Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology, AIST, 2017
Series
CHS2-series ; 6
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-64311 (URN)978-1-935117-66-7 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2, Atlanta, Georgia, 4-7 June 2017
Available from: 2017-06-21 Created: 2017-06-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Pelcastre, L., Hardell, J. & Prakash, B. (2017). Influence of die Temperature on the Tribological Response During Interaction with Al-SI Coated Ultra-High Strength Steel. In: Mats Oldenburg, Braham Prakash, Kurt Steinhoff (Ed.), 6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2: June 4-7 2017, Atlanta, Georgia, USA : proceedings. Paper presented at 6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2, Atlanta, Georgia, 4-7 June 2017 (pp. 461-469). Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology, AIST
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of die Temperature on the Tribological Response During Interaction with Al-SI Coated Ultra-High Strength Steel
2017 (English)In: 6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2: June 4-7 2017, Atlanta, Georgia, USA : proceedings / [ed] Mats Oldenburg, Braham Prakash, Kurt Steinhoff, Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology, AIST , 2017, p. 461-469Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology, AIST, 2017
Series
CHS2-series ; 6
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-64314 (URN)978-1-935117-66-7 (ISBN)
Conference
6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2, Atlanta, Georgia, 4-7 June 2017
Available from: 2017-06-21 Created: 2017-06-21 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Pelcastre, L., Hardell, J. & Prakash, B. (2017). Tribological behaviour of Zn coated UHSS sliding against hot-work tool steel at high temperatures. Paper presented at 21st International Conference on Wear of Materials, Hilton Long Beach, California, 26-30 March 2017. Wear, 376-377(Part-A), 423-432
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tribological behaviour of Zn coated UHSS sliding against hot-work tool steel at high temperatures
2017 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 376-377, no Part-A, p. 423-432Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing demands for light-weight components in vehicles contribute to the global expansion of hot sheet metal forming technologies. Structural components are typically produced using hot stamping of ultra-high strength steel (UHSS). This process allows forming of complex shapes whilst enabling control of the mechanical properties of the end product. Interest in zinc coated UHSS has increased in recent years in view of the corrosion protection it provides to the final components. There is a need for increased understanding of its tribological behaviour during the interaction with tool steel at elevated temperatures. In this work, tribological studies have been carried out in a novel hot strip tribometer. The aim was to study the effect of different operating conditions on the tribological behaviour of zinc coated UHSS sliding against a hot-work tool steel under un-lubricated conditions. The parameters studied in this work were; temperature, ranging from 400 °C to 700 °C; and contact pressure, from 5 to 30 MPa. The UHSS was initially heated up to austenitising temperature (840 °C) and then cooled down to the testing temperature. Upon stabilisation of temperature, the load was applied and sliding was carried out for a total of 1500 mm at 100 mm/s. The results showed a trend towards decreasing average coefficient of friction as temperature and contact pressure increased. Unstable friction behaviour was observed at low temperature (400 °C) and high contact pressure (30 MPa) whilst higher temperatures (600 °C) facilitated the development of a low and stable friction behaviour. It is proposed that the friction behaviour is controlled by the properties of the zinc phases in the coating developed during heating of the UHSS. The combination of high temperature and sliding conditions result in the removal of the uppermost oxide layer and the phases beneath control the friction behaviour.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61339 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2016.10.029 (DOI)000403904000052 ()2-s2.0-85020023917 (Scopus ID)
Conference
21st International Conference on Wear of Materials, Hilton Long Beach, California, 26-30 March 2017
Note

2017-06-08 (rokbeg);konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2017-01-09 Created: 2017-01-09 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3123-0303

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