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Zetterholm, J. (2018). Forest based biorefinery supply chains - Identification and evaluation of economic, CO2, and resource efficiency. (Licentiate dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Forest based biorefinery supply chains - Identification and evaluation of economic, CO2, and resource efficiency
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Värdekedjor för skogsbaserade bioraffinaderier – Identifiering och utvärdering av ekonomisk, CO2, och resurseffektivitet
Abstract [en]

Biorefineries for production of fuels, chemicals, or materials, can bean important contribution to reach a fossil-free economy. Large-scaleforest-based biorefineries are not yet cost competitive with their fossil counterparts and it is important to identify biorefinery supply chain configurations with good economic, CO2, and biomass performance if biorefineries are to be a viable alternative to the fossil refineries.

Several factors influence the performance of biorefinery supply chains,e.g. type of conversion process, geographical localisation, and produc-tion capacity. These aspects needs to be analysed in conjunction to identify biorefineries with good supply chain performance. There ares everal approaches to improve the performance of biorefineries, wheree.g. integration with other industries can improve the economic perfor-mance by utilisation of excess heat and by-products. From a Swedish perspective the traditional forest industry is of interest as potential host industries, due to factors such as by-product availability, opportunity for heat integration, proximity to other biomass resources, and their experience in operating large-scale biomass supply chains.

The objectives of this work were to investigate how different supply chain configurations influence the economic, biomass, and CO2 perfor-mance of thermochemical biorefineries integrated with forest industries,as well as methods for evaluating those supply chains.

This work shows that there is an economic benefit for integration with the traditional forest industry for thermochemical biorefineries.This is especially true when the biorefinery concept can replace cur-rent old industrial equipment on site which can significantly improvethe economic performance of the biorefinery, highlighting the role the Swedish forest industry could play to reach a cost efficient large-scale implementation of lignocellulosic biorefineries.

The cost for biomass is a large contributor to the total cost of biore-fineries and for traditional techno-economic evaluations, the biomass prices are considered as static variables. A large-scale biorefinery will likely have an impact on the biomass market, which could lead to both changes in the biomass price, as well as changed biomass demand for other industries. A framework where this is accounted for was intro-duced, combining a techno-economic perspective for evaluating the sup-ply chain performance, with a market model which identifies changes in biomass price and allocation due to the increased biomass competition.

The biorefinery performance can be determined from several per-spectives and system boundaries, both from a plant-level and a national perspective. To facilitate a large-scale introduction of biorefineries and  maximise the benefit from their implementations, there is a need to identify biorefinery concepts with high performance considering severa system boundaries, which has been explored in this work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Bioenergy Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67924 (URN)978-91-7790-071-9 (ISBN)978-91-7790-072-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2018-05-07, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2018-03-16 Created: 2018-03-13 Last updated: 2019-01-08Bibliographically approved
Zetterholm, J., Pettersson, K., Leduc, S., Lundgren, J. & Wetterlund, E. (2018). Resource efficiency or economy of scale: Biorefinery supply chain configurations for co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis liquids. Applied Energy, 230, 912-924
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resource efficiency or economy of scale: Biorefinery supply chain configurations for co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis liquids
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 230, p. 912-924Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biorefineries for the production of fuels, chemicals, or materials can be an important contributor to reducing dependence on fossil fuels. The economic performance of the biorefinery supply chain can be increased by, for example, industrial integration to utilise excess heat and products, increasing size to improve economy of scale, and using intermediate upgrading to reduce feedstock transport cost. To enable a large-scale introduction of biorefineries it is important to identify cost efficient supply chain configurations.

This work investigates a lignocellulosic biorefinery concept integrated with forest industry, focusing on how different economic conditions affect the preferred supply chain configurations. The technology investigated is black liquor gasification, with and without the addition of pyrolysis liquids to increase production capacity. Primarily, it analyses trade-offs between high biomass conversion efficiency and economy of scale effects, as well as the selection of centralised vs. decentralised supply chain configurations.

The results show the economic advantage for biomass efficient configurations, when the biorefinery investment is benefited from an alternative investment credit due to the replacement of current capital-intensive equipment at the host industry. However, the investment credit received heavily influenced the cost of the biorefinery and clearly illustrates the benefit for industrial integration to reduce the cost of biorefineries. There is a benefit for a decentralised supply chain configuration under very high biomass competition. However, for lower biomass competition, site-specific conditions will impact the favourability of either centralised or decentralised supply chain configurations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Biorefinery, Economy of scale, Efficiency, Supply chain, Black liquor, Pyrolysis liquids
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70831 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.018 (DOI)000448226600068 ()2-s2.0-85053046147 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 213-2014-184Swedish Energy Agency, Forskarskolan EnergisystemBio4Energy
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-09-19 (svasva)

Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Zetterholm, J., Ji, X., Sundelin, B., Martin, P. & Wang, C. (2017). Dynamic modelling for the hot blast stove (ed.). Applied Energy, 185(2), 2142-2150
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic modelling for the hot blast stove
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2017 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 185, no 2, p. 2142-2150Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A large amount of energy is required in the production of steel where the preheating of blast in the hot blast stoves for iron-making is one of the most energy-intensive processes. To improve the energy efficiency of the steelmaking it is necessary to investigate how to improve the hot blast stove operation.In this work a mathematic model for evaluating the performance of the hot blast stove was developed using a finite difference approximation for the heat transfer inside the stove during operation. The developed model was calibrated and validated by using the process data from hot blast stove V26 at SSABs plant in Oxelösund, Sweden. The investigation shows a good agreement between the measured and modelled data.As a case study, the developed model was used to simulate the effect of a new concept of OxyFuel technique to hot blast stoves. The investigation shows that, by using this OxyFuel technique, it is possible to maintain the blast temperature while removing the usage of coke oven gas (COG). The saved COG can be used to replace some fossil fuel, such as oil and LPG.Furthermore, the effect of the cycle time on the single stove was studied. As expected, both the hot blast and flue gas temperatures are increased when increasing the cycle time. This shows that it is a good strategy for the hot blast stove to increase the blast temperature if the stove is currently not operated with the maximum allowed flue-gas temperature. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-6776 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.02.128 (DOI)000390494800115 ()2-s2.0-84959554159 (Scopus ID)5122f9c3-64e3-4c9f-9be6-8c2bb4bbc30c (Local ID)5122f9c3-64e3-4c9f-9be6-8c2bb4bbc30c (Archive number)5122f9c3-64e3-4c9f-9be6-8c2bb4bbc30c (OAI)
Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2018-09-13Bibliographically approved
Wang, C., Zetterholm, J., Lundqvist, M. & Schlimbach, J. (2017). Modelling and Analysis of Oxygen Enrichment to Hot Stoves. Paper presented at 8th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE2016, Beijing, China, 8-11 October 2016. Energy Procedia, 105, 5128-5133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling and Analysis of Oxygen Enrichment to Hot Stoves
2017 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 5128-5133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper presents some research work on applying the oxygen enrichment technique to hot stoves that was carried out in one European RFCS project. In the presented work, both theoretical and practical work was studied. A dynamic model was used to investigate the effects of oxygen enrichment on hot stoves’ performance under the condition that only blast furnace gas was used as the fuel gas. The modelling results showed that SOE will enhance the combustion process in hot stoves by increasing hot blast temperature and shortening the on-gas time, which were further verified by industrial trials performed at an iron-making plant. In addition, CFD modelling was performed by simulating different oxygen levels and lance positions at the burner to avoid the hot spot formation during the combustion.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63732 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2017.03.1041 (DOI)000404967905036 ()2-s2.0-85020745113 (Scopus ID)
Conference
8th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE2016, Beijing, China, 8-11 October 2016
Note

2017-06-05 (andbra);Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2017-06-05 Created: 2017-06-05 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Zetterholm, J., Wetterlund, E., Pettersson, K. & Lundgren, J. (2016). Evaluation of co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis liquids from a national systems perspective. In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016: . Paper presented at Swedish assiciation of energy economics, Luleå, August 23-24 2016. Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of co-gasification of black liquor and pyrolysis liquids from a national systems perspective
2016 (English)In: Meeting Sweden's current and future energy challenges, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2016
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60417 (URN)
Conference
Swedish assiciation of energy economics, Luleå, August 23-24 2016
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-11-15 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved
Lundmark, R., Wetterlund, E., Lundgren, J., Ouraich, I., Bryngemark, E., Zetterholm, J., . . . Andersson, S. (2016). Projekt: En hållbar omställning av energisystemet mot en ökad andel bioenergi. Paper presented at .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Projekt: En hållbar omställning av energisystemet mot en ökad andel bioenergi
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2016 (English)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

3 PhD projects: Markets and price formulation (LTU, economics); Technologies and value chains (Chalmers) and; Location and industrial change (LTU, energy engineering). The general system perspective has its starting point in the importance of biomass and bioenergy in the transition to a long-run sustainable energy system and to an efficient spatial resource utilization and production with increased value chains. Focus is on biorefineries. A spatial approach will be applied in combination with national energy system modelling in connection with technological development potentials and industrial applications is linked to the feed-stock supply as well as market and policy issues.

National Category
Economics Energy Engineering
Research subject
Economics; Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36273 (URN)d62ce193-52d2-4d90-ac51-c62ff55484df (Local ID)d62ce193-52d2-4d90-ac51-c62ff55484df (Archive number)d62ce193-52d2-4d90-ac51-c62ff55484df (OAI)
Note

Finansieringskälla: Public research programme (public); Forskningsprogram: Energimyndigheten; Belopp: 12 110 000,00 Svenska kronor; Publikationer: A Geographically Explicit Approach for Price Determination of Forest Feedstock under Different Next-Generation Biofuel Production Scenarios – The Case of Sweden; Status: Ongoing; Period: 01/09/2015 → 31/12/2018

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Zetterholm, J., Ji, X., Sundelin, B., Martin, P. M. & Wang, C. (2015). Model Development of a Blast Furnace Stove (ed.). Paper presented at International Conference on Applied Energy : 28/03/2015 - 31/03/2015. Energy Procedia, 75, 1758-1765
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Model Development of a Blast Furnace Stove
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2015 (English)In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 75, p. 1758-1765Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A large amount of energy is required in the production of steel where the preheating of blast in the hot blast stoves for iron-making is one of the most energy-intensive processes. To improve the energy efficiency it is necessary to investigate how to improve the hot blast stove operation.In this work a mathematic model for evaluating the performance of the hot blast stove was developed using a finite difference approximation to represent the heat transfer inside the stove during operation. The developed model was calibrated by using the process data from the stove V26 at SSAB Oxelösund, Sweden. As a case study, the developed model was used to simulate the effect of a new concept of OxyFuel technique to hot blast stoves. The investigation shows that,by using the OxyFuel technique, it is possible to maintain the blast temperature while removing the usage of coke oven gas. Additionally, the hot blast temperature increases while the flue gas temperature decreases, which allows for an increase of the blast temperature, leading to improved energy efficiency for the hot stove system.

National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-37123 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.454 (DOI)000361030003002 ()2-s2.0-84947093980 (Scopus ID)b0725fb8-b4dc-43c6-9700-2e3d6d536596 (Local ID)b0725fb8-b4dc-43c6-9700-2e3d6d536596 (Archive number)b0725fb8-b4dc-43c6-9700-2e3d6d536596 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Applied Energy : 28/03/2015 - 31/03/2015
Note
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 1; 20150901 (andbra); Konferensartikel i tidskriftAvailable from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5662-570x

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