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Neikter, M., Colliander, M., de Andrade Schwerz, C., Hansson, T., Åkerfeldt, P., Pederson, R. & Antti, M.-L. (2020). Fatigue Crack Growth of Electron Beam Melted Ti-6Al-4V in High-Pressure Hydrogen. Materials, 13(6), Article ID 1287.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatigue Crack Growth of Electron Beam Melted Ti-6Al-4V in High-Pressure Hydrogen
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2020 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 6, article id 1287Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Titanium-based alloys are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement (HE), a phenomenon that deteriorates fatigue properties. Ti-6Al-4V is the most widely used titanium alloy and the effect of hydrogen embrittlement on fatigue crack growth (FCG) was investigated by carrying out crack propagation tests in air and high-pressure H2 environment. The FCG test in hydrogen environment resulted in a drastic increase in crack growth rate at a certain Δ K, with crack propagation rates up to 13 times higher than those observed in air. Possible reasons for such behavior were discussed in this paper. The relationship between FCG results in high-pressure H2 environment and microstructure was investigated by comparison with already published results of cast and forged Ti-6Al-4V. Coarser microstructure was found to be more sensitive to HE. Moreover, the electron beam melting (EBM) materials experienced a crack growth acceleration in-between that of cast and wrought Ti-6Al-4V.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
fatigue crack growth (FCG), electron beam melting (EBM), Ti-6Al-4V, hydrogen embrittlement (HE)
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78500 (URN)10.3390/ma13061287 (DOI)000529208000026 ()32178389 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85082593205 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-04-15 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-04-15 Created: 2020-04-15 Last updated: 2020-05-28Bibliographically approved
Neikter, M., Huang, A. & Wu, X. (2019). Microstructural characterization of binary microstructure pattern in selective laser-melted Ti-6Al-4V. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 104(1-4), 1381-1391
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructural characterization of binary microstructure pattern in selective laser-melted Ti-6Al-4V
2019 (English)In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 104, no 1-4, p. 1381-1391Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing process that offers efficient manufacturing of complex parts with good mechanical properties. For SLM, process parameters and post-processing are of importance as they affect the microstructure and consequently the mechanical properties. A feature in the microstructure, which is formed in SLM due to the fast cooling rate, is a binary microstructure pattern (BMP). The BMP is found in the horizontal plane and is formed with various laser scan angles between adjacent layers. The easiest distinguishable strategy is 90°, which renders a shape similar to a chessboard. In this work, the BMP phenomenon was investigated in detail and a microstructural characterization was performed on the fine microstructure zone (FMZ) that separates the coarse microstructure zones (CMZ), by using light optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) that were equipped with electron backscattered (EBSD) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) detectors. Moreover, the effect of the process parameter hatch distance on the BMP was investigated and the overlapping between neighboring scan tracks in SLM was found to influence the size of the BMP, while the thickness of the FMZ remained constant. Different post-SLM heat treatments were performed and it was shown that the BMP retained unless the heat treatment temperature reached above the β transus temperature. EBSD and β grain reconstruction were performed as well to reveal the columnar β grain orientations. The result showed that each CMZ and FMZ originates from a respective parent β grains.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Selective laser melting (SLM), Microstructure, Chessboard, Ti-6Al-4V, Prior beta
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75750 (URN)10.1007/s00170-019-04002-8 (DOI)000483808200099 ()
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-09-11 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-29 Created: 2019-08-29 Last updated: 2019-09-24Bibliographically approved
Neikter, M. (2019). Microstructure and hydrogen embrittlement of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V. (Doctoral dissertation). Luleå: Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure and hydrogen embrittlement of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Mikrostruktur och väteförsprödning av additivt tillverkad Ti-6Al-4V
Abstract [en]

The work of this doctoral thesis has been performed between the 24th of August 2015 to the 6th of September 2019. The general purpose of this work has been to increase the knowledge of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V when it comes to microstructure, texture and hydrogen embrittlement. Several additive manufacturing (AM) processes have been addressed, the main focus, however, has been on the two processes electron beam melting (EBM) and selective laser melting (SLM). The work has been performed at Luleå University of Technology and at Monash Centre of Additive Manufacturing (MCAM), which is a part of Monash University, Melbourne Australia. GKN Aerospace Engine Systems has been involved in the work as a collaborative industrial partner. Where the main interaction and support has been between GKN in Trollhättan, Sweden. GKNs facility in Filton, United Kingdom, however, has also been involved in sample production. The texture measurements using neutron time of flight (TOF) diffraction were performed in Dubna, Russia at Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, using the spektrometer kolitshestvennovo analiza tekstury (SKAT) instrument and in Los Alamos at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, using the texture instrument high pressure preferred orientation (HIPPO). The interest of specifically additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V originates from GKN Aerospace Engine Systems as they have been contracted to manufacture parts for the Ariane rockets. In aerospace, weight is of utter importance as reduced weight of the components reduce the fuel costs and makes it possible to transport increased loads. Therefore, titanium has been suggested to replace heavier metal alloys (such as nickel-based superalloys) due to titanium’s high specific strength and overall good properties. The work has been managed under the supervision of Professor Marta-Lena Antti, Professor Robert Pederson and Dr. Pia Åkerfeldt at Luleå University of Technology and by Professor Xinhua Wu and Professor Aijun Huang at MCAM. The project has been financed by three parties Space for Innovation and Growth (RIT), Nationellt Rymdtekniskt Forskningsprogram (NRFP) and the Graduate School of Space Technology. The thesis is composed of a literature review along with the appended papers that have been written throughout the duration of the project. The purpose of the literature review is to give the reader a broader knowledge and context about the theory behind the work conducted during the Ph.D. project. The thesis commences with a theoretical background about titanium, its crystal structures, microstructure, and AM. The chapter about AM is divided into three sub-chapters, explaining the two different AM sub-groups directed energy deposition (DED) and powder bed fusion (PBF). Then the chapter finalizes with explaining the benefits and drawbacks with AM. Once these subjects been explained there is a chapter explaining AM built Ti-6Al-4V. The theme of this chapter is the differences in the microstructure of AM built and conventional built Ti-6Al-4V, where phenomena like chessboard pattern and layers bands are discussed, followed by a comparative section of the mechanical properties. The chapter about AM built Ti-6Al-4V is followed by a chapter about texture where the two texture techniques electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and neutron (TOF) diffraction are explained. The literature review then continues with the chapters neutron tomography, hydrogen embrittlement, and fatigue crack growth. Then there is a chapter about the materials and experimental methods that have been used to perform all the experiments, then a summary of all the papers and conclusions. After the conclusions, the thesis finalizes with a chapter about possible future work and an outlook into the future of AM. In the end, the papers I to IV are appended.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Ti-6Al-4V, Additive Manufacturing, Texture, Microstructure, Hydrogen Embrittlement
National Category
Materials Chemistry Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73905 (URN)978-91-7790-396-3 (ISBN)978-91-7790-397-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-09-23, E246, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-11 Last updated: 2019-08-29Bibliographically approved
Maimaitiyili, T., Woracek, R., Neikter, M., Boin, M., Wimpory, R. C., Pederson, R., . . . Bjerkén, C. (2019). Residual Lattice Strain and Phase Distribution in Ti-6Al-4V Produced by Electron Beam Melting. Materials, 12(4), Article ID 667.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Residual Lattice Strain and Phase Distribution in Ti-6Al-4V Produced by Electron Beam Melting
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2019 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 667Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Residual stress/strain and microstructure used in additively manufactured material are strongly dependent on process parameter combination. With the aim to better understand and correlate process parameters used in electron beam melting (EBM) of Ti-6Al-4V with resulting phase distributions and residual stress/strains, extensive experimental work has been performed. A large number of polycrystalline Ti-6Al-4V specimens were produced with different optimized EBM process parameter combinations. These specimens were post-sequentially studied by using high-energy X-ray and neutron diffraction. In addition, visible light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) studies were performed and linked to the other findings. Results show that the influence of scan speed and offset focus on resulting residual strain in a fully dense sample was not significant. In contrast to some previous literature, a uniform α- and β-Ti phase distribution was found in all investigated specimens. Furthermore, no strong strain variations along the build direction with respect to the deposition were found. The magnitude of strain in α and β phase show some variations both in the build plane and along the build direction, which seemed to correlate with the size of the primary β grains. However, no relation was found between measured residual strains in α and β phase. Large primary β grains and texture appear to have a strong effect on X-ray based stress results with relatively small beam size, therefore it is suggested to use a large beam for representative bulk measurements and also to consider the prior β grain size in experimental planning, as well as for mathematical modelling.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
residual stress/strain, electron beam melting, diffraction, Ti-6Al-4V, electron backscattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73158 (URN)10.3390/ma12040667 (DOI)000460793300117 ()30813435 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85062212588 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-03-11 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-04-12Bibliographically approved
Neikter, M., Woracek, R., Maimaitiyili, T., Scheffzük, C., Strobl, M., Antti, M.-L., . . . Bjerkén, C. (2018). Alpha texture variations in additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V investigated with neutron diffraction. Additive Manufacturing, 23, 225-234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alpha texture variations in additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V investigated with neutron diffraction
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2018 (English)In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 23, p. 225-234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Variation of texture in Ti-6Al-4V samples produced by three different additive manufacturing (AM) processes has been studied by neutron time-of-flight (TOF) diffraction. The investigated AM processes were electron beam melting (EBM), selective laser melting (SLM) and laser metal wire deposition (LMwD). Additionally, for the LMwD material separate measurements were done on samples from the top and bottom pieces in order to detect potential texture variations between areas close to and distant from the supporting substrate in the manufacturing process. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was also performed on material parallel and perpendicular to the build direction to characterize the microstructure. Understanding the context of texture for AM processes is of significant relevance as texture can be linked to anisotropic mechanical behavior. It was found that LMwD had the strongest texture while the two powder bed fusion (PBF) processes EBM and SLM displayed comparatively weaker texture. The texture of EBM and SLM was of the same order of magnitude. These results correlate well with previous microstructural studies. Additionally, texture variations were found in the LMwD sample, where the part closest to the substrate featured stronger texture than the corresponding top part. The crystal direction of the α phase with the strongest texture component was [112¯3].

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70649 (URN)10.1016/j.addma.2018.08.018 (DOI)000453495500022 ()2-s2.0-85051782355 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-08-29 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-08-29 Created: 2018-08-29 Last updated: 2019-05-11Bibliographically approved
Neikter, M., Forsberg, F., Pederson, R., Antti, M.-L., Åkerfeldt, P., Larsson, S., . . . Puyoo, G. (2018). Defect characterization of electron beam melted Ti-6Al-4V and Alloy 718 with X-ray microtomography. Aeronautics and Aerospace Open Access Journal, 2(3), 139-145
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Defect characterization of electron beam melted Ti-6Al-4V and Alloy 718 with X-ray microtomography
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2018 (English)In: Aeronautics and Aerospace Open Access Journal, ISSN 2576-4500, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 139-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electron beam melting (EBM) is emerging as a promising manufacturing process where metallic components are manufactured from three-dimensional (3D) computer aided design models by melting layers onto layers. There are several advantages with this manufacturing process such as near net shaping, reduced lead times and the possibility to decrease weight by topology optimization, aspects that are of interest for the aerospace industry. In this work two alloys, Ti-6Al-4V and Alloy 718, widely used within the aerospace industry were investigated with X-ray microtomography (XMT), to characterize defects such as lack of fusion (LOF) and inclusions. It was furthermore possible to view the macrostructure with XMT, which was compared to macrostructure images obtained by light optical microscopy (LOM). XMT proved to be a useful tool for defect characterization and both LOF and un-melted powder could be found in the two investigated samples. In the EBM built Ti-6Al-4V sample high density inclusions, believed to be composed of tungsten, were found. One of the high-density inclusions was found to be hollow, which indicate that the inclusion stems from the powder manufacturing process and not related with the EBM process. By performing defect analyses with the XMT software it was also possible to quantify the amount of LOF and un-melted powder in vol%. From the XMT-data meshes were produced so that finite element method (FEM) simulations could be performed. From these FEM simulations the significant impact of defects on the material properties was evident, as the defects led to high stress concentrations. It could moreover, with FEM, be shown that the as-built surface roughness of EBM material is of importance as high surface roughness led to increased stress concentrations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MedCrave Group, 2018
Keywords
X-ray tomography, Ti-6Al-4V, Alloy 718, defects and electron beam melting
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Other Materials Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Engineering Materials; Solid Mechanics; Experimental Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68924 (URN)10.15406/aaoaj.2018.02.00044 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-05-28 Created: 2018-05-28 Last updated: 2018-11-08Bibliographically approved
Saeidi, K., Neikter, M., Olsen, J., Shen, Z. J. & Akhtar, F. (2017). 316L stainless steel designed to withstand intermediate temperature. Materials & design, 135, 1-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>316L stainless steel designed to withstand intermediate temperature
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2017 (English)In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 135, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Austenitic stainless steel 316L was fabricated for withstanding elevated temperature by selective laser melting (SLM). Tensile tests at 800 °C were carried out on laser melted 316L with two different strain rates of 0.05 S− 1 and 0.25 S− 1. The laser melted 316L showed tensile strength of approximately 400 MPa at 800 °C, which was superior to conventional 316L. Analysis of fracture surface showed that the 316L fractured in mixed mode, ductile and brittle fracture, with an elongation of 18% at 800 °C. In order to understand the mechanical response, laser melted 316L was thermally treated at 800 °C for microstructure and phase stability. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) of 316L treated at 800 °C disclosed a textured material with single austenitic phase. SEM and EBSD showed that the characteristic and inherent microstructure of laser melted 316L, consisting of elongated grains with high angle grain boundaries containing subgrains with a smaller misorientation, remained similar to as-built SLM 316L during hot tensile test at 800 °C. The stable austenite phase and its stable hierarchical microstructure at 800 °C led to the superior mechanical response of laser melted 316L.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65565 (URN)10.1016/j.matdes.2017.08.072 (DOI)000413236300001 ()2-s2.0-85028815416 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-09-11 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-09-11 Created: 2017-09-11 Last updated: 2018-03-05Bibliographically approved
Neikter, M., Forsberg, F., Lycksam, H., Pederson, R. & Antti, M.-L. (2017). Microstructure and Defects in Additive Manufactured Titanium: a Comparison Between Microtomography and Optical Microscopy. In: : . Paper presented at 3rd International Conference on Tomography of Materials and Structures, Lund, Sweden, 26-30 June 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure and Defects in Additive Manufactured Titanium: a Comparison Between Microtomography and Optical Microscopy
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The aim of this work has been to compare two different analysing methods;x-ray microtomography and light optical microscopy, when it comes to defects and microstructure of additively manufactured Ti-6Al-4V. The results showthat both techniqueshave theirpros and cons:microtomography is the preferred choicefor defect detectionby analysing the full 3D sample volume, while light optical microscopy is better for analysing finer details in 2D.

National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Other Materials Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Engineering Materials; Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65063 (URN)
Conference
3rd International Conference on Tomography of Materials and Structures, Lund, Sweden, 26-30 June 2017
Available from: 2017-08-14 Created: 2017-08-14 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Neikter, M. (2017). Microstructure and Texture of Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V. (Licentiate dissertation). Luleå University of Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure and Texture of Additive Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Additive manufacturing (AM) for metals is a manufacturing process that has increased a lot in popularity last few years as it has experienced significant improvements since its beginning, both when it comes to accuracy and deposition rates. There are many different AM processes where the energy sources and deposition methods varies. But the common denominator is their layer wise manufacturing process, melting layer on layer. AM has a great design freedom compared to conventional manufacturing, making it possible to design new structures with decreased weight and increased performance.  A drawback is slow manufacturing speeds, making it more expensive. But when it comes to low lot sizes and complex structures AM is very competitive. So, for the aerospace and space industry AM is a good option as manufacturing cost is less of an issue and where saving weight is of great concern, both environmentally and economically.  There are however many topics left to research before additive manufactured titanium can be widely adopted for critical components, such as microstructure and texture development and its correlation to mechanical properties. The aim of this work has been to investigate the microstructure and texture of various AM processes. Microstructural features such as prior β grains, grain boundary α (GB-α), α laths, α colonies have been characterized along with hardness measurements for 5 different AM processes. Some of these AM processes have also been investigated in the SKAT instrument in Dubna, Russia, to obtain their texture. These textures have then been compared with one another and correlated to previous microstructural investigations and mechanical properties. This is important knowledge as the microstructure and the texture sets the basis for the mechanical properties. In case there is a high texture, the material can have anisotropic mechanical behavior, which could be either wanted or unwanted for different applications.  

Some the findings are that α phase was found to increase in the prior β grain boundary for the AM processes with low cooling rates, while it was discontinuous and even non-present for the AM processes with high cooling rates. The prior β size are larger for the directed energy deposition (DED) processes than for the powder bed fusion (PBF) processes. Parallel bands were present for the DED process while being non-present for the PBF processes. Concerning the texture, it was found that LMwD had a higher texture than EBM and SLM. Texture inhomogeneity was also found for the LMwD process., where two parts of the same sample was investigated and the material closer to the surface had higher texture. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2017
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Keywords
Additive manufacturing, microstructure, Ti-6Al-4V, texture
National Category
Materials Chemistry Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Material Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66103 (URN)978-91-7583-986-8 (ISBN)978-91-7583-987-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2018-01-31, E246, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-12 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
Neikter, M., Pederson, R., Åkerfeldt, P. & Antti, M.-L. (2017). Microstructure characterisation of Ti-6Al-4V from different additive manufacturing processes. Paper presented at International Materials Research Meeting in the Greater Region: "Current Trends in the Characterisation of Materials and Surface Modification", Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany, 6–7 April 2017. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 258, Article ID 012007.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Microstructure characterisation of Ti-6Al-4V from different additive manufacturing processes
2017 (English)In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 258, article id 012007Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The focus of this work has been microstructure characterisation of Ti-6Al-4V manufactured by five different additive manufacturing (AM) processes. The microstructure features being characterised are the prior β size, grain boundary α and α lath thickness. It was found that material manufactured with powder bed fusion processes has smaller prior β grains than the material from directed energy deposition processes. The AM processes with fast cooling rate render in thinner α laths and also thinner, and in some cases discontinuous, grain boundary α. Furthermore, it has been observed that material manufactured with the directed energy deposition processes has parallel bands, except for one condition when the parameters were changed, while the powder bed fusion processes do not have any parallel bands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2017
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66341 (URN)10.1088/1757-899X/258/1/012007 (DOI)2-s2.0-85035102621 (Scopus ID)
Conference
International Materials Research Meeting in the Greater Region: "Current Trends in the Characterisation of Materials and Surface Modification", Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany, 6–7 April 2017
Note

Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2017-11-01 Created: 2017-11-01 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3772-4371

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