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Distribution Network Planning Considering Capacity Mechanisms and Flexibility
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-4443-7653
2019 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The increasing penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs) has posed challenges to the distribution system operator (DSO) from the operation and regulatory point of view. High penetration of DERs could have negative impacts on the performance of the distribution grid, and depending on the regulatory framework, the DSO's remuneration as well. In liberalized electrical systems, the focus on promoting eciency has led to the implementation of an incentive-based regulation that exerts additional pressure on the DSOs to reduce costs. Additionally, the European Parliament Directive 2009/72/EC establishes a regulatory unbundling among the distribution, production, and retailing activities within the same vertically integrated electric utility.

A way of helping the DSO to cope with the posed challenges is by providing it with exibility. This exibility can be acquired from the planning stage, and later be used during the system operation. This exibility can stem from the DSO's ability to exert control on the demand and the supply side to balance the system and correct its operational state.

Based on the European DSOs' current situation at facing the increasing penetration of DERs, this thesis investigates in non-wired exible grid tools to solve the distribution network expansion problem. The investigation focuses on exibility providers, in particular on energy storage systems and hydropower, and also on capacity mechanisms to translate the capacity from DERs into the grid's capacity for planning purposes.

Given that the share of renewable sources among the DERs is increasing, and considering the importance of energy storage systems in providing exibility to balance renewable energy production, the eort has been turned on to developing a hydropower model and a generic storage model that t both planning and operational studies.

Given the need for gearing the DERs' behavior into the DSO's decision making process during the planning and operational timescales, the design and implementation of a distribution capacity mechanism have been developed. The design of the capacity mechanism has been conceived considering its integration within the distribution network expansion problem.

The outcomes of this thesis can be synthesized as follows: 1) A generic hydraulic/storage model provided with an equivalent marginal cost that aids in considering the impact of present decisions in the future costs. 2) A market oriented distribution capacity mechanism that gears DERs and the DSOs to benefit mutually. 3) A distribution network expansion planning formulation that integrates the capacity resource from DERs through the distribution capacity mechanism.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019.
Serie
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
Forskningsämne
Elkraftteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72726ISBN: 978-91-7790-308-6 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-7790-309-3 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-72726DiVA, id: diva2:1283534
Disputation
2019-04-16, Hörsal A, Forskargatan 1, Building A, Campus Skellefteå, Skellefteå, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-30 Skapad: 2019-01-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-19Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. Regulatory Matters Affecting Distribution Planning With Distributed Generation
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Regulatory Matters Affecting Distribution Planning With Distributed Generation
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: CIRED - Open Access Proceedings Journal, E-ISSN 2515-0855, Vol. 2017, nr 1, s. 2869-2873Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Under the present European directive concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, distribution companies are not allowed to own distributed generation (DG) but encouraged to include it as a planning option to defer investment in traditional grid reinforcements. Distribution system operators (DSOs) have used the provision of capacity contracted to DG as a viable alternative under current regulatory arrangements. Here, the topics bonding DSOs and DG owners under the present regulation will be explored and a planning structure that considers distribution capacity contracts as a planning option will be proposed. This will serve as a road map for DSOs to implement its preferred planning tools in an optimisation context, considering costs of investment, reliability, operation, and capacity provision while complying with current regulation.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
Forskningsämne
Elkraftteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60775 (URN)10.1049/oap-cired.2017.0358 (DOI)
Konferens
CIRED 2017, Glasgow 12-15 June 2017
Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-29 Skapad: 2016-11-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-29Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Reservoir-Type Hydropower Equivalent Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise Approximation
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Reservoir-Type Hydropower Equivalent Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise Approximation
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Electric power systems research, ISSN 0378-7796, E-ISSN 1873-2046, Vol. 155, s. 184-195Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The long-term (LT) scheduling of reservoir-type hydropower plants is a multistage stochastic dynamic problem that has been traditionally solved using the stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) approach. This LT schedule of releases should be met through short-term (ST) scheduling decisions obtained from a hydro-thermal scheduling that considers uncertainties. Both time scales can be linked if the ST problem considers as input the future cost function (FCF) obtained from LT studies. Known the piecewise-linear FCF, the hydro-scheduling can be solved as a one-stage problem. Under certain considerations a single segment of the FCF can be used to solve the schedule. From this formulation an equivalent model for the hydropower plant can be derived and used in ST studies. This model behaves accordingly to LT conditions to be met, and provides a marginal cost for dispatching the plant. A generation company (GENCO) owning a mix of hydro, wind, and thermal power will be the subject of study where the model will be implemented. The GENCO faces the problem of scheduling the hydraulic resource under uncertainties from e.g. wind and load while determining the market bids that maximize its profit under uncertainties from market prices. A two-stage stochastic unit commitment (SUC) for the ST scheduling implementing the equivalent hydro model will be solved.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2018
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
Forskningsämne
Elkraftteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60771 (URN)10.1016/j.epsr.2017.09.028 (DOI)000419410300018 ()2-s2.0-85032274995 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-11-06 (andbra)

Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-29 Skapad: 2016-11-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-29Bibliografiskt granskad
3. A Generic Storage Model Based on a Future Cost Piecewise-Linear Approximation
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid, ISSN 1949-3053, E-ISSN 1949-3061, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 878-888Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This work presents a generic storage model (GSM) inspired by the scheduling of hydraulic reservoirs. The model for steady state short-term (ST) operational studies interlaces with the long-term (LT) energy scheduling through a piecewise-linear Future Cost Function (FCF). Under the assumption that a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach has been used to solve the energy schedule for the LT, the FCF output from that study will be processed to obtain an equivalent marginal opportunity cost for the storage unit. The linear characteristic of a segment of the future cost function (FCF) will allow a linear modeling of the storage unit production cost. This formulation will help to coordinate the renewable resource along with storage facilities in order to find the optimal operation cost while meeting end-point conditions for the long-term plan of the energy storage. The generic model will be implemented to represent a battery storage and a pumped-hydro storage. A stochastic unit commitment (SUC) with the GSM will be formulated and tested to assess the day-ahead scheduling strategy of a Virtual Power Plant (VPP) facing uncertainties from production, consumption, and market prices.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2019
Nyckelord
Schedules, Uncertainty, Load modeling, Production, Energy storage, GSM, Stochastic processes
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
Forskningsämne
Elkraftteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60774 (URN)10.1109/TSG.2017.2754288 (DOI)000455180900080 ()2-s2.0-85030639335 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-01-25 (inah)

Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-29 Skapad: 2016-11-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-29Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Remuneration Assessment of a VPP Providing Distribution Capacity Services
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: IEEE PES PowerTech Manchester 2017: towards and beyond sustainable energy systems, Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, artikel-id 7980881Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

A Distribution System Operator (DSO) might consider a capacity contract as a planning alternative to defer grid investments. A Virtual Power Plant (VPP) might be able to provide such capacity and change its production as requested by the DSO. This article presents an assessment of the impact of this type of distribution capacity contract (DCC) on VPP's remuneration. This assessment is done by comparing the optimal production / bidding strategy which maximize its profit, under presence or absence of these contracts. The impact of intermittent generation and storage while evaluating these scenarios will be investigated as well. A stochastic unit commitment will be used to determine the VPP's strategy under uncertainties from wind power, load, market prices, and the requested power by the DSO. The model showed that the VPP involvement in distribution capacity contracts can improve its remuneration when certain types of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) are used to provide the service.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Piscataway, NJ: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
Forskningsämne
Elkraftteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60776 (URN)10.1109/PTC.2017.7980881 (DOI)000411142500094 ()2-s2.0-85034752863 (Scopus ID)978-1-5090-4237-1 (ISBN)
Konferens
12th IEEE PES PowerTech Conference, Manchester, June 18-22 2017
Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-29 Skapad: 2016-11-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-29Bibliografiskt granskad
5. A Capacity Mechanism Design for Distribution Network Expansion Planning
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe), 2018, artikel-id 8493874Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Capacity remuneration mechanisms have been originally oriented to ensure availability and continuity of supply on the power generation pool. Equivalent generation-based capacity mechanisms could be implemented to enhance and prolong the usability of the distribution grid. In particular, such capacity mechanisms would provide an alternative to traditional expansion options leading to investment deferral. In this work, a distribution capacity mechanism to fit within a distribution network planning methodology will be proposed and discussed. The capacity mechanism will be outlined following similar guidelines as for the design of capacity mechanisms used in the energy only market. The result of the design is a volume based capacity auction for a capacity-constrained system, oriented to both the active and the reactive power provision.

Nyckelord
Power system planning; capacity planning; power distribution.
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
Forskningsämne
Elkraftteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72033 (URN)10.1109/EEEIC.2018.8493874 (DOI)000450163701017 ()2-s2.0-85056522960 (Scopus ID)978-1-5386-5186-5 (ISBN)978-1-5386-5187-2 (ISBN)
Konferens
2018 IEEE International Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering and 2018 IEEE Industrial and Commercial Power Systems Europe (EEEIC / I&CPS Europe), 12-15 June, Palermo, Italy
Tillgänglig från: 2018-12-13 Skapad: 2018-12-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-27Bibliografiskt granskad
6. Capacity Mechanisms for Distribution Network Expansion Planning
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Capacity Mechanisms for Distribution Network Expansion Planning
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2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
Nyckelord
Power distribution, power system planning, capacity planning.
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
Forskningsämne
Elkraftteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72723 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-29 Skapad: 2019-01-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-01-29

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