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Hardware-in-the-loop based WCET analysis with KLEE
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1791-535x
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
Luleå University of Technology, Professional Support.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab. Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.
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2018 (English)In: 2018 IEEE 23RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES AND FACTORY AUTOMATION (ETFA), Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018, p. 345-352Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

C programming dominates the mainstream of embedded development as of today. To aid the development, hardware abstractions, libraries, kernels, and light-weight operating systems are commonplace. However, these typically offer little or no help to automatic worst-case execution time (WCET) estimation, and thus manual test and measurement based approaches remain the de facto standard. For this paper, we take the outset from the Real-Time For the Masses (RTFM) framework, which is developed to facilitate embedded software development for IoT devices and provides highly efficient implementations, suitable to the mainstream of embedded system design. Although the Rust language plays currently a minor part in embedded development, we believe its properties add significant improvements and thus implement our RTFM framework in Rust. We present an approach to worst-case execution time estimation in the context of RTFM tasks and critical sections, which renders sufficient information for further response time and schedulability analysis. We introduce our test bench, which utilizes the KLEE tool for automatic test vector generation and subsequently performs cycle accurate hardware-in-the-loop measurements of the generated tests. The approach is straightforward and fully automatic. Our solution bridges the gap in between measurement based and static analysis methods for WCET estimation. We demonstrate the feasibility of the approach on a running example throughout the paper and conclude with a discussion on its implications and limitations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 2018. p. 345-352
Series
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation-ETFA, ISSN 1946-0740
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71247DOI: 10.1109/ETFA.2018.8502510ISI: 000449334500042Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85057245110ISBN: 978-1-5386-7108-5 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-71247DiVA, id: diva2:1256724
Conference
23rd IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA 2018) Politecnico Torino,Italy , Sep 04-07, 2018
Available from: 2018-10-17 Created: 2018-10-17 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. !secure(system) <=?=> !safe(system): On Security and Safety of Industrial Software Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>!secure(system) <=?=> !safe(system): On Security and Safety of Industrial Software Systems
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The focus of our research work is on readily accessible, embedded, real-time development with concurrency support. To this end, we develop the Real-Time For the Masses (RTFM) programming framework with a model of computation based on tasks and resources and that stipulates a timing semantics. Typically, hard real-time requirements are a characteristic of safety-critical applications. In contrast to runtime verification, such applications primarily require static assurances concerning safety and security attributes. This thesis discusses the building blocks for a statically analyzable programming paradigm for embedded real-time applications and its implementation. Svenska kraftnät funded the research presented in this thesis and set the scope to industrial automation. Consequently, we also investigate the applicability of our RTFM framework for scheduling and resource management for the runtime environments of industrial applications. We start by reviewing relevant and well-established industry standards to build background knowledge of the state-of-the-art safety and security requirements in software development. Special attention is placed on the IEC 61131 and IEC 61499 standards for industrial software development and their programming and execution model. We show the feasibility of using IEC 61499 as a holistic, distributed, and hierarchical model with mappings from the functional layer (IEC 61499 function block networks) and safety layer (PLCopen safety function blocks) to RTFM. We also demonstrate that our Rust-based RTFM implementation enables static verification for a myriad of safety and security attributes. Moreover, our investigations reveal a mutual dependency of safety and security in the context of software systems. For this reason, we believe and argue that safety and security cannot be considered independent during the design and implementation of safety-critical applications. Upon closer examination, we even conclude that safety and security are equivalent.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
embedded systems, hard real-time, concurrency, model of computation, safety-critical, safety, security, industrial automation, RTFM, real-time for the masses
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73059 (URN)978-91-7790-320-8 (ISBN)978-91-7790-321-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-08, A3024, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-02-27 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved

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Lindner, MarcusLindgren, Per

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