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External Human-Machine Interfaces for Autonomous Vehicle-to-Pedestrian Communication: A Review of Empirical Work
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3503-4676
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Humans and technology.
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 2757Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interaction between drivers and pedestrians is often facilitated by informal communicative cues, like hand gestures, facial expressions, and eye contact. In the near future, however, when semi- and fully autonomous vehicles are introduced into the traffic system, drivers will gradually assume the role of mere passengers, who are casually engaged in non-driving-related activities and, therefore, unavailable to participate in traffic interaction. In this novel traffic environment, advanced communication interfaces will need to be developed that inform pedestrians of the current state and future behavior of an autonomous vehicle, in order to maximize safety and efficiency for all road users. The aim of the present review is to provide a comprehensive account of empirical work in the field of external human–machine interfaces for autonomous vehicle-to-pedestrian communication. In the great majority of covered studies, participants clearly benefited from the presence of a communication interface when interacting with an autonomous vehicle. Nevertheless, standardized interface evaluation procedures and optimal interface specifications are still lacking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2019. Vol. 10, article id 2757
Keywords [en]
traffic interaction, human–vehicle interaction, autonomous vehicles, vehicle-to-pedestrian communication, external human–machine interfaces, vulnerable road users
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77420DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02757ISI: 000504252200001PubMedID: 31920810Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85077251777OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-77420DiVA, id: diva2:1385834
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-01-29 (johcin);

For correction, see: Rouchitsas A and Alm H (2020) Corrigendum: External Human–Machine Interfaces for Autonomous Vehicle-to-Pedestrian Communication: A Review of Empirical Work. Front. Psychol. 11:575151. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.575151

Available from: 2020-01-15 Created: 2020-01-15 Last updated: 2023-09-07Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Virtual Human Characters for Autonomous Vehicle-to-Pedestrian Communication
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Virtual Human Characters for Autonomous Vehicle-to-Pedestrian Communication
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Pedestrians base their street-crossing decisions on both vehicle-centric cues, like speed and acceleration, and driver-centric cues, like gaze direction and facial expression. In the future, however, drivers of autonomous vehicles will be preoccupied with non-driving related activities and thus unavailable to provide pedestrians with relevant communicative cues. External human-machine interfaces (eHMIs) hold promise for filling the expected communication gap by providing information about the current state and future behaviour of an autonomous vehicle, to primarily ensure pedestrian safety and improve traffic flow, but also promote public acceptance of autonomous vehicle technology. The aim of this thesis is the development of an intuitive, culture-transcending eHMI, that can support multiple pedestrians in parallel make appropriate street-crossing decisions by communicating pedestrian acknowledgement and vehicle intention. In the proposed anthropomorphic eHMI concept, a virtual human character (VHC) is displayed on the windshield to communicate pedestrian acknowledgement and vehicle intention via gaze direction and facial expression, respectively. The performance of different implementations of the proposed concept is evaluated in the context of three monitor-based, laboratory experiments where participants performed a crossing intention task. Four papers are appended to the thesis. Paper I provides an overview of controlled studies that employed naive participants to evaluate eHMI concepts. Paper II evaluates the effectiveness of the proposed concept in supporting a single pedestrian or two co-located pedestrians make appropriate street-crossing decisions. Paper III evaluates the efficiency of emotional facial expressions in communicating non-yielding intention. Paper IV evaluates the efficiency of emotional and conversational facial expressions in communicating yielding and non-yielding intention. An implementation of the proposed anthropomorphic eHMI concept where a male VHC communicates non-yielding intention via an angry expression, cruising intention via cheek puff, and yielding intention via nod, is shown to be both highly effective in ensuring the safety of a single pedestrian or even two co-located pedestrians without compromising traffic flow in either case, and the most efficient. Importantly, this level of effectiveness is reached in the absence of any explanation of the rationale behind the eHMI concept or training to interact with it successfully.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå tekniska universitet, 2022
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
external human-machine interfaces, pedestrian acknowledgement, vehicle intention, traffic safety, traffic flow, gaze direction, facial expression
National Category
Vehicle Engineering Applied Psychology
Research subject
Engineering Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-90172 (URN)978-91-8048-061-1 (ISBN)978-91-8048-062-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-06-10, A117, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-04-13 Created: 2022-04-12 Last updated: 2022-05-30Bibliographically approved

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Corrigendum(123 kB)55 downloads
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Rouchitsas, AlexandrosAlm, Håkan

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