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Performance of a pellet boiler fired with agricultural fuels
Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH.
Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH.
Bioenergy 2020+ GmbH.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Energivetenskap.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-2314-8097
Vise andre og tillknytning
2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 104, s. 286-296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The increasing demand for woody biomass increases the price of this limited resource, motivating the growing interest in using woody materials of lower quality as well as non-woody biomass fuels for heat production in Europe. The challenges in using non-woody biomass as fuels are related to the variability of the chemical composition and in certain fuel properties that may induce problems during combustion. The objective of this work has been to evaluate the technical and environmental performance of a 15 kW pellet boiler when operated with different pelletized biomass fuels, namely straw (Triticum aestivum), Miscanthus (Miscanthus × giganteus), maize (Zea mays), wheat bran, vineyard pruning (from Vitis vinifera), hay, Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wood (from Picea abies) with 5% rye flour. The gaseous and dust emissions as well as the boiler efficiency were investigated and compared with the legal requirements defined in the FprEN 303-5 (final draft of the European standard 303-5). It was found that the boiler control should be improved to better adapt the combustion conditions to the different properties of the agricultural fuels. Additionally, there is a need for a frequent cleaning of the heat exchangers in boilers operated with agricultural fuels to avoid efficiency drops after short term operation. All the agricultural fuels satisfied the legal requirements defined in the FprEN 303-5, with the exception of dust emissions during combustion of straw and Sorghum. Miscanthus and vineyard pruning were the best fuels tested showing comparable emission values to wood combustion.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
2013. Vol. 104, s. 286-296
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-11644DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.10.058ISI: 000316152700028Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84870902461Lokal ID: aa92ad11-a344-4a04-ac56-01fb805c5b26OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-11644DiVA, id: diva2:984594
Merknad
Validerad; 2013; 20121218 (andbra)Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-29 Laget: 2016-09-29 Sist oppdatert: 2018-07-10bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Opportunities to broaden biomass feedstocks in thermochemical conversion technologies
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Opportunities to broaden biomass feedstocks in thermochemical conversion technologies
2018 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Alternativ tittel[sv]
Möjligheter till utökad bioråvarubas förtermokemiska konverteringstekniker
Abstract [en]

Global environmental concerns are motivating a growing interest in broadening the biomass feedstock base in several energy sectors, including (i) the domestic heating sector, presently dominated by stem wood combustion, and (ii) biofuel production, presently dominated by edible crops. The objective of this thesis is to investigate new opportunities to broaden the biomass feedstock in thermochemical conversion technologies. The performance of different feedstocks was therefore investigated for (i) heat production in small-scale combustion systems and (ii) biofuel production in large-scale gasification-based plants. The selected feedstocks were agricultural residues, forest wood, pyrolysis liquid and industrial by-products, such as lignin, black liquor, crude glycerol and fermentation residues.

The alkali metals content in biomass has an important role in combustion and gasification. Alkali metals can cause ash-related problems in small-scale combustion systems, while they can catalyse gasification reactions thus increasing conversion efficiency. Keeping this effect in mind, the present investigation was based on combustion tests with pelletised agricultural residues (non-woody feedstocks with ash contents of 3-8 wt% on a dry basis) to evaluate their combustion feasibility in several small-scale appliances. Moreover, the potential techno-economic benefits of alkali addition in gasification-based biofuel plants were investigated in two different systems: (i) stand-alone biofuel plant operated with wet-alkali-impregnated forest residues and alkali-rich lignin as well as (ii) biofuel plant integrated with a Kraft pulp mill operated with black liquor (an inherently alkali-rich feedstock) mixed with different blend ratios of pyrolysis liquid, crude glycerol or fermentation residues (co-gasification concept). The techno-economic analysis in large-scale entrained-flow-gasification-based biofuel plants was made with the help of simulation tools.

The combustion tests have shown that high alkali feedstocks lead to problems with ash accumulation and slag formation in small-scale appliances. The results indicated that non-woody feedstocks can only be burned in appliances adapted to manage high ash content feedstocks. Effective ash cleaning and enhanced combustion controlling mechanisms are relevant characteristics to have in appliances when using these feedstocks. It has been shown that four out of the seven selected feedstocks can be burned in small-scale appliances, while fulfilling the legal European requirements (EN 303-5:2012) in terms of combustion efficiency and emissions. The nitrogen content and ash composition were shown to be important parameters to evaluate whether a feedstock can be utilised in small-scale combustion appliances.

The techno-economic investigations of the gasification-based biofuel plants have shown that alkali impregnation is an attractive option to increase energy performance and downstream biofuel production. The economic assessment has indicated that alkali impregnation does not significantly increase biofuel production costs, while it allows the application of a new syngas cleaning system that can significantly reduce biofuel production costs. The present study has shown that the vi co-gasification concept has also techno-economic benefits as a result of the (i) alkali content in black liquor and (ii) economy-of-scale effects. These benefits can be enhanced by choosing energy-rich and low-cost blend-in feedstocks. The gasification-based biofuel production routes hereby investigated exhibit a good economic performance since biofuel required selling prices were economically competitive with other biofuel production routes as well as with taxed gasoline.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018. s. 150
Serie
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Emneord
Non-woody biomass, Combustion, Gasification, Biofuels, Techno-economic analysis
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Energiteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68200 (URN)978-91-7790-088-7 (ISBN)978-91-7790-089-4 (ISBN)
Disputas
2018-05-28, E632, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 10:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-04-06 Laget: 2018-04-05 Sist oppdatert: 2018-05-15bibliografisk kontrollert

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