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The Role of Public Policies for Energy Technology Development: Their Innovation Effects and Interaction
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-2031-6710
2015 (engelsk)Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The overall purpose of this thesis is to analyze the role of public policies for technological development (i.e., innovation) in the renewable energy sector. The thesis consists of an introductory part and three self-contained papers.

Paper I investigates the innovation effects of renewable energy support policies and their interaction in the empirical context of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. This is achieved by using data on solar PV patent counts and policies targeting solar PV development across 13 countries over the time period 1978-2008. These policies include public R&D support to solar PV as well as two different types of production support schemes: feed-in tariffs (FIT) and renewable energy certificates (REC). The data are applied to a negative binomial model and the results indicate that: (a) both FIT and REC schemes stimulate solar PV patenting activity although the impact of the former is of a larger magnitude; (b) public R&D has been more influential than the production support schemes in inducing solar PV innovation; and (c) policy interaction exists in that the innovation effect of public R&D support is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of FIT schemes for solar PV.

Paper II analyzes the role of pilot and demonstration plants (PDPs) in technological development. As surprisingly little explicit attention has been devoted to this issue in prior research, the existing literature is synthesized and categorized, and an agenda is proposed for future work. Scholarly work on PDPs can be found across several research fields and the discussion in the paper is organized around three research streams: engineering and natural science research, technology and innovation management, and innovation systems. Based on searches in key bibliographic databases more than 200 publications were identified and reviewed. According to the literature synthesis, the plants bridge basic knowledge generation and technological breakthroughs on the one hand (promoted by public R&D support), and exploitation of new technology for commercial use on the other (promoted by production support schemes). Still, more research on the subject is needed. For instance, the role of PDPs for inducing innovation needs to be assessed in a rigorous empirical setting as this issue has only been researched in conceptual studies or retrospective case studies based entirely on qualitative or descriptive approaches.

Paper III provides an econometric analysis of the innovation impacts of publicly funded PDP activities in the case of advanced biofuel technology. This is achieved by using data on biofuel patent counts and PDPs across eight European countries over the time period 1980-2011. It is acknowledged that PDPs have two main objectives: testing and optimization of technology (experimental PDPs), and diffusion and commercialization of technology (exemplary PDPs). The data are applied to a negative binomial model and indicate that: (a) PDP activities are overall positively correlated with biofuel patents; (b) experimental PDPs are more innovation-promoting than exemplary PDPs; and (c) experimental PDP activities encourage innovation also indirectly through knowledge spillovers.

The overall conclusion is that environmental policy encourages renewable energy innovation. Public R&D support as well as production support schemes are important for inducing innovation, and there are interactions between these policy types which must be acknowledged when designing public support. As public R&D support is more innovation-promoting when accompanied by the use of certain production support schemes, these policies should be employed simultaneously. Moreover, publicly funded PDP activities foster innovation and thus, their role must also be acknowledged when designing public policy.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Luleå tekniska universitet, 2015.
Serie
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Emneord [en]
Innovation, Innovation economics, Patents, Energy policy, Pilot and demonstration plants, Public policy, Economics of technological change
Emneord [sv]
Innovation, teknisk utveckling, inducerad teknisk utveckling, miljöpolitiska styrmedel, miljöekonomi, patent
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Nationalekonomi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-26731Lokal ID: fd1b6ff1-9ed3-4f16-8fe7-ef9b381fbf3cISBN: 978-91-7583-252-4 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-7583-253-1 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-26731DiVA, id: diva2:999901
Presentation
2015-04-17, A109, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 13:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-30 Laget: 2016-09-30 Sist oppdatert: 2018-02-28bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. Public Policies and Solar PV Innovation: An Empirical Study Based on Patent Data
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Public Policies and Solar PV Innovation: An Empirical Study Based on Patent Data
2014 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Oral presentation only (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

The objective of this paper is to examine the innovation impacts of different renewable energy support policies and their interaction in the empirical context of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. This is achieved using data on patent applications for 13 countries over the time period 1978-2008. Three policies are included in the analysis: public R&D support to solar PV, fixed feed-in tariffs (FIT), and renewable energy certificate (REC) schemes. The results are overall robust to alternative model specifications, and indicate that: (a) both FIT schemes and REC schemes induce more solar PV patenting activity even though the impact of the former policy appears to be more profound; (b) (lagged) public R&D support has an important impact on solar PV innovation; and (c) policy interaction exists in that the impact of public R&D support on innovation is greater at the margin if it is accompanied by the use of FIT schemes for solar PV. A corresponding interaction effect does not emerge in the case of public R&D and the use of REC schemes, possibly due to the relatively strong technology selection pressure under the latter policy.

HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Nationalekonomi; Förnybar energi (FOI)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-34386 (URN)89088361-4df8-4f17-a6a5-b0b010f69bd9 (Lokal ID)89088361-4df8-4f17-a6a5-b0b010f69bd9 (Arkivnummer)89088361-4df8-4f17-a6a5-b0b010f69bd9 (OAI)
Konferanse
IAEE International Conference : Energy & the Economy 15/06/2014 - 18/06/2014
Merknad

Godkänd; 2014; 20140618 (kribac)

Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-30 Laget: 2016-09-30 Sist oppdatert: 2018-02-28bibliografisk kontrollert
2. The Role of Pilot and Demonstration Plants in Technological Development: Synthesis and Directions for Future Research
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The Role of Pilot and Demonstration Plants in Technological Development: Synthesis and Directions for Future Research
Vise andre…
2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Pilot and demonstration plants (PDPs) play important roles in technological development. They represent bridges between basic knowledge generation and technological breakthroughs on the one hand, and industrial application and commercial adoption on the other. The objectives of this article are to synthesise and categorise existing research on PDPs, as well as to suggest an agenda for future research. We review the PDP phenomena in three literature streams: engineering and natural science research, technology and innovation management, and innovation systems. The analysis highlights clear differences in e.g. conceptions of system boundaries and what the literature streams seeks to accomplish, but also similarities such as the key ideas of using PDPs for technology scale-up and uncertainty reduction.

HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Entreprenörskap och innovation; Nationalekonomi; Förnybar energi (FOI); Effektiv innovation och organisation (FOI)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14052 (URN)10.1080/09537325.2014.943715 (DOI)000346407000001 ()2-s2.0-84919838243 (Scopus ID)d5d7df8d-e73a-4417-8f01-6d793ab10f57 (Lokal ID)d5d7df8d-e73a-4417-8f01-6d793ab10f57 (Arkivnummer)d5d7df8d-e73a-4417-8f01-6d793ab10f57 (OAI)
Merknad

Validerad; 2014; Nivå 2; 20140805 (johfri)

Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-29 Laget: 2016-09-29 Sist oppdatert: 2018-07-10bibliografisk kontrollert
3. What are the Innovation Effects of Pilot and Demonstration Plants?: The Case of Advanced Biofuels in the Transport Sector
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>What are the Innovation Effects of Pilot and Demonstration Plants?: The Case of Advanced Biofuels in the Transport Sector
2015 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Oral presentation only (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Pilot and demonstration plants (PDPs) may be important for fostering technological innovation. They constitute a bridge between basic knowledge generation and technological breakthroughs on the one hand, and industrial application and commercial adoption of new technology on the other. The aim of this paper is to examine the innovation impacts of publicly funded PDP activities in the empirical context of production technology for advanced biofuels. The study is conducted by employing patent data for eight European countries over the time period 1980-2011, and it is acknowledged that PDPs have two main objectives: testing and optimization of technology (experimental PDPs), and diffusion and commercialization of technology (exemplary PDPs). The results are overall robust to alternative model specifications, and indicate that: (a) PDP activities are overall positively correlated with biofuel patenting activity; (b) both experimental and exemplary PDPs encourage biofuel innovation although the impact of the former is more profound; and (c) development activities in experimental PDPs encourage innovation also indirectly through knowledge spillovers across countries.

Emneord
Business / Economics - Economics, Innovation policy, Pilot and demonstration plants, Economics of technological change, Patents, Ekonomi - Nationalekonomi
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Förnybar energi (FOI); Effektiv innovation och organisation (FOI); Nationalekonomi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-34406 (URN)89868018-d5a4-49f7-ad4f-868d28e3bb96 (Lokal ID)89868018-d5a4-49f7-ad4f-868d28e3bb96 (Arkivnummer)89868018-d5a4-49f7-ad4f-868d28e3bb96 (OAI)
Konferanse
European Biomass Conference and Exhibition : 01/06/2015 - 04/06/2015
Merknad

Godkänd; 2015; 20150604 (kribac)

Tilgjengelig fra: 2016-09-30 Laget: 2016-09-30 Sist oppdatert: 2018-02-28bibliografisk kontrollert

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