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Evaluating Live Loudness Meters from Engineers' Actions and Resulting Output Levels
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Medier, ljudteknik och teater.
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 0004-7554, Vol. 66, nr 7-8, s. 556-577Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Qualities of loudness meters were investigated by running a simulated live broadcast show, mixed by subjects with different degrees of audio engineering experience. The subject-induced fader movements and the resulting output levels were analyzed using a general linear mixed model and then interpreted according to a proposed set of quality criteria for live loudness meters. The results show that, for subparts of the program. meters with slower integration lime caused less dispersion of the resulting output levels and a smaller error to a given target level. The varying integration tunes of the meters did not cause any significant differences in reaction time. It is concluded that this type of data may be used in evaluation of loudness meters and the specific study provides insight into the effect of time scales and meter implementation for EBU R 128-compliant meters.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2018. Vol. 66, nr 7-8, s. 556-577
Nationell ämneskategori
Övrig annan humaniora
Forskningsämne
Ljudteknik
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71367DOI: 10.17743/jaes.2018.0029ISI: 000447290400004Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85052757145OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-71367DiVA, id: diva2:1259272
Anmärkning

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-10-29 (johcin)

Tillgänglig från: 2018-10-29 Skapad: 2018-10-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-16Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Evaluation of Live Loudness Meters
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Evaluation of Live Loudness Meters
2019 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Discrepancies in loudness (i.e. sensation of audio intensity) has been of great concern within the broadcast community. For television broadcast, disparities in audio levels have been rated the number one cause to annoyance by the audience. Another problem area within the broadcast and music industry is the loudness war. The phenomenon is about the strive to produce audio content to be at least as loud or louder to any other audio content that it can easily be compared with. This mindset, when deciding for audio level treatment, inevitably leads to an increase in loudness over time, and also, as a technical consequence, a decrease of utilized dynamics. The effects of the loudness war is present in both terrestrial radio transmissions as well as in music production and in music distribution platforms.

The two problems, discrepancies in loudness and the loudness war, both emanate from the same source; regulations of audio levels and the design of measurement gear have not been amended to cope with modern production techniques. At the time when the work on this thesis started, the ruling technical recommendations for audio level alignment were based on peak measurement. This measured entity has poor correspondence to loudness. To counter the above described problems, the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has developed new recommendations for audio alignment, EBU R 128 and ITU-R BS.1770. The new definitions for loudness measurement constitutes simplified models on the human perception of audio intensity. When using the new recommendations in production, the problems have been shown to diminish.

For an engineer in a live broadcast scenario, measurement equipment also need to be updated in real-time to illustrate a time-variant loudness of the signal. EBU and ITU also has regulated how this type of measurement gear should behave. EBU Tech 3341 and ITU-R BS.1771 define properties for live loudness meters. These recommendations has since the time of publication been implemented in measurement equipment from manufacturers and become available in production facilities.

This thesis investigates the conceptions that have led up to the present recommendations for live loudness meters. It maps out the (at the time) present ways to evaluate the same. Emanating from this knowledge, a new methodology to evaluate loudness meters is proposed that combines qualities from former methods to achieve an alternative balance between ecological validity and control in the experiment design. The methodology includes a procedure to capture data from engineers’ actions and the resulting audio levels from simulated broadcast scenarios. The methodology also incorporates a way to process this type of data into different parameters to be more accessible for interpretation. It presents an approach to model the data, by the use of linear mixed models, to describe different effects in the parameters as the result of the meters’ characteristics. In addition, a review on publications that examine the engineers’ own requests for beneficial qualities in a loudness meter has been condensed and revised into a set of meter criteria that specifically is designed to be applied on the outcome of the mixed models. The outcome of the complete evaluation yields statements on meter quality that are different and complementary to formerly proposed methods for meter evaluation.

The methodology has been applied in two different studies, which also are accounted for in the thesis. The conclusions from these studies has led to an increased understanding of how to design live loudness meters to be satisfactory tools to the engineer. Examples of findings are: the effect of the speed of the meter, as being controlled by one or several time constants, on the readability of the meter and the dispersion in output levels – some tested candidates, with higher speed than the present recommended ones, has been shown to be adequate as tools; the three-second integration time has been shown to generate a smaller dispersion in output levels than the 400 ms integration time; the effect of the gate in BS.1771 on the resulting output levels– the gate generally leading to an increase in output levels. The acquired knowledge may be used to improve the present recommendations for audio level alignment, from EBU and ITU.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2019
Serie
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Nyckelord
loudness, loudness metering, live loudness meter, loudness meter, audio level alignment, R 128, hörstyrka, mätning av hörstyrka, loudnessmätare, hörstyrkemätare, nivåjustering, R 128, upplevd ljudnivå
Nationell ämneskategori
Mediateknik Övrig annan humaniora
Forskningsämne
Ljudteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72465 (URN)978-91-7790-296-6 (ISBN)978-91-7790-297-3 (ISBN)
Disputation
2019-03-01, L165, Snickargatan 20, Piteå, 13:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Forskningsfinansiär
Interreg Nord
Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-07 Skapad: 2019-01-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-02-14Bibliografiskt granskad

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Allan, JonBerg, Jan

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