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A Real-Time Semantics for the IEC 61499 standard
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1791-535X
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Embedded Internet Systems Lab.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5311-1781
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-9315-9920
Show others and affiliations
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of 2015 IEEE 20th International Conference on Emerging Technologies & Factory Automation (ETFA 2015): Luxembourg, 8-11 Sept. 2015, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015, article id 7301558Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The IEC 61499 standard provides an executable model for distributed control systems in terms of interacting function blocks. However, the current IEC 61499 standard lacks appropriate timing semantics for the specification of timing requirements, reasoning on timing properties at the model level, and for the timing verification of a specific deployment. In this paper we address this fundamental shortcoming by proposing Real-Time-4-FUN, a real-time semantics for IEC 61499. The key property is the preservation of non-determinism, allowing us to reason on (and verify) timing properties at the model level without assuming any specific scheduling policy or stipulating specific order of execution for the deployment. This provides for a clear separation of concerns, where the designer can focus on properties of the application prior to, and separately from, deployment verification. The proposed timing semantics is backwards compatible to the current standard, thus allow for reuse of existing designs. The transitional property allows timing requirements to propagate to downstream sub-systems, and can be utilized for scheduling both at device and network level. Based on a translation to RTFM-tasks and resources, IEC 61499 the models can be analyzed, compiled and executed. As a proof of concept the timing semantics has been experimentally implemented in the RTFM-core language and the accompanying (thread based) RTFM-RT run-time system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Communications Society, 2015. article id 7301558
Series
I E E E International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation. Proceedings, ISSN 1946-0740
National Category
Embedded Systems Computer Sciences
Research subject
Embedded System; Dependable Communication and Computation Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-36915DOI: 10.1109/ETFA.2015.7301558Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-84952918103Local ID: abd06064-cd7b-4d30-8ca2-a6eed13cec5bISBN: 978-1-4673-7929-8 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-36915DiVA, id: diva2:1010414
Conference
IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation : 08/09/2015 - 11/09/2015
Note
Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 20150917 (maalin)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. !secure(system) <=?=> !safe(system): On Security and Safety of Industrial Software Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>!secure(system) <=?=> !safe(system): On Security and Safety of Industrial Software Systems
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The focus of our research work is on readily accessible, embedded, real-time development with concurrency support. To this end, we develop the Real-Time For the Masses (RTFM) programming framework with a model of computation based on tasks and resources and that stipulates a timing semantics. Typically, hard real-time requirements are a characteristic of safety-critical applications. In contrast to runtime verification, such applications primarily require static assurances concerning safety and security attributes. This thesis discusses the building blocks for a statically analyzable programming paradigm for embedded real-time applications and its implementation. Svenska kraftnät funded the research presented in this thesis and set the scope to industrial automation. Consequently, we also investigate the applicability of our RTFM framework for scheduling and resource management for the runtime environments of industrial applications. We start by reviewing relevant and well-established industry standards to build background knowledge of the state-of-the-art safety and security requirements in software development. Special attention is placed on the IEC 61131 and IEC 61499 standards for industrial software development and their programming and execution model. We show the feasibility of using IEC 61499 as a holistic, distributed, and hierarchical model with mappings from the functional layer (IEC 61499 function block networks) and safety layer (PLCopen safety function blocks) to RTFM. We also demonstrate that our Rust-based RTFM implementation enables static verification for a myriad of safety and security attributes. Moreover, our investigations reveal a mutual dependency of safety and security in the context of software systems. For this reason, we believe and argue that safety and security cannot be considered independent during the design and implementation of safety-critical applications. Upon closer examination, we even conclude that safety and security are equivalent.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
embedded systems, hard real-time, concurrency, model of computation, safety-critical, safety, security, industrial automation, RTFM, real-time for the masses
National Category
Embedded Systems
Research subject
Embedded Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73059 (URN)978-91-7790-320-8 (ISBN)978-91-7790-321-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-08, A3024, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-02-27 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved

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Lindgren, PerLindner, MarcusLindner, AndreasVyatkin, Valeriy

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