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A comparison between Stepwise Modelling and Inverse Modelling methods for characterization of press hardened sheet metals
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9626-5406
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7514-0513
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7074-8960
Number of Authors: 32017 (English)In: 6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2: June 4-7 2017, Atlanta, Georgia, USA : proceedings / [ed] Mats Oldenburg, Braham Prakash, Kurt Steinhoff, Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology, AIST , 2017, p. 281-288Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The demand for weight reduction of cars has increased the number of press hardened sheet metal parts used in the automotive industry. This leads to an increased demand on the precision of simulations of press hardened sheet metals. An accurate prediction of the post-necking behaviour of materials is therefore needed to increase the precision of computer simulations with large deformations, as for example in forming simulations and crash simulations. Especially fracture simulations of press hardened steel parts with tailored properties have a huge demand on precise material models.

Inverse modelling is a common engineering tool to characterize the elasto-plastic behaviour of materials.  Taking experimental data, such as force and displacement data, the material model parameters are optimised until the simulated output reaches a target function.  Then inverse modelling is highly time demanding and needs nonlinear hardening material models. 

Lately a new fast method for post necking characterisation of sheet metals, called the Stepwise Modelling Method (SMM), was presented. This method uses full field measurements to obtain the strain field on the surface of sheet metal tensile specimens.  Furthermore, the stepwise modelling method models an experimental hardening curve in a stepwise process.  This hardening curve is a piecewise linear curve and not restricted to any specific material model.

In this paper SMM is used to characterize the hardening behaviour for thermally treated boron steel.  These results are compared with the results of inverse modelling. Three different material models are used. The comparison shows a minor deviation in the resulting hardening relations between stepwise modelling and inverse modelling. Since the efficiency is an important factor in product development calculation times are taken into account.  Comparing calculation time using SMM is considerably more efficient than using inverse modelling. Furthermore another advantage of SMM is shown in the fact that the piecewise linear hardening curves can be fitted to almost any material model without computational costs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Warrendale, PA: Association for Iron & Steel Technology, AIST , 2017. p. 281-288
Series
CHS2-series ; 6
Keywords [en]
Stepwise modelling, Inverse modelling, Material characterisation, Boron steel, Press hardening, Material modelling
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology Vehicle Engineering Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62459ISBN: 978-1-935117-66-7 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-62459DiVA, id: diva2:1081228
Conference
6th International Conference Hot Sheet Metal Forming of High-Performance Steel CHS2, Atlanta, Georgia, 4-7 June 2017
Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Material Characterization for Modelling of Sheet Metal Deformation and Failure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Material Characterization for Modelling of Sheet Metal Deformation and Failure
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Weight reduction is one possibility to reduce fuel consumption and emission of transportation vehicles. Sheet metals are often used in automotive and aerospace applications and therefore the weight reduction achieved by reducing the sheet metals thickness is an important contribution to weight reduction. Increasing the strength of sheet metal materials gives the opportunity to reduce the total weight while maintaining safety. To prove a maintained safety for parts with a decreased weight Finite Element (FE) simulations are commonly used. This leads to a high demand on the simulation precision of sheet metals, where an accurate prediction of the post-necking behaviour of materials is needed. Improved FE simulations are reducing time and costs during the development processes. 

One application to improve the strength of sheet metals in the automotive industry is the usage of ultra high strength steels, which has constantly increased in usage during the last decades. The development of the press hardening process, where sheet metal blanks are formed and quenched simultaneously, brings new design opportunities. Using press hardening tools with zones that uses different cooling rates sheet metal parts can be produced with tailored properties, to improve their performance. Simulating materials based on the microstructure demands high precision on the plasticity modelling for high strain values. 

In this thesis work a method to characterize the elasto plastic post necking behaviour of sheet metal materials, the Stepwise Modelling Method (SMM), is presented. The method uses full field measurements of the deformation field on the surface of tensile specimen. The hardening relation is modelled as a piecewise linear in a step by step procedure. The linear hardening parameter is adapted to reduce the residual between experimental and calculated tensile forces. The SMM is used to characterize the post necking behaviour of a ferritic boron steel and the results are compared with the commonly used inverse modelling method. It is shown that the stepwise modelling method characterizes the true stress, true plastic strain relation in an effective and computational efficient way. Furthermore, the SMM is used to characterize the stress state evolution during tensile testing, which is an important factor for failure and fracture modelling. This method is shown in an aerospace application for the nickel based super alloy Alloy 718. 

The results shows that the stepwise modelling method is an effective and efficient alternative method to characterize the deformation and failure of sheet metals. Based on the results of this method plasticity and fracture models can be characterized in future work.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2017
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Materials Engineering Mechanical Engineering Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62477 (URN)978-91-7583-845-8 (ISBN)978-91-7583-846-5 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-05-12, E231, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Available from: 2017-03-15 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
2. An Approach on Material Model Calibration for Modelling of Sheet Metal Deformation and Failure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Approach on Material Model Calibration for Modelling of Sheet Metal Deformation and Failure
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Sheet metals are often used in automotive and aerospace applications for safety-relevant components. Weight reduction is one possibility to reduce fuel consumption or increase the payload capacity and therewith reduce the carbondioxide emission of these trans-portation vehicles. The weight reduction can be achieved by using new sheet metal alloys and thereby reducing the sheet metals thickness. Advanced material process-ing technologies like for example the press hardening process to manufacture ultra high strength steels (UHSS) are an important contribution to weight reduction. Furthermore, the usage of many different sheet metal materials and grades, like the new generation of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and aluminium alloys will replace further low strength steel components.To challenge the balance between safety and weight reduction, while maintaining safety, reliable and efficient engineering tools are needed. Finite Element (FE) simulations are commonly used to prove a maintained safety for parts with a decreased sheet thickness and weight. This leads to a high demand on the simulation precision of sheet metals, where an accurate prediction of the failure behaviour and the post-necking hardening of materials is needed. Therefore, an approach on material model calibration for modelling of sheet metal deformation and failure is developed. The ability for companies to predict the performance envelop of all these new sheet metal alloys and components is of great importance for the metal manufacturer as well as for the automotive industry.In this thesis work a method to characterize the elasto plastic post necking behaviour of sheet metal materials, the Stepwise Modelling Method (SMM), is presented. The method uses full field measurements of the deformation field on the surface of tensile specimen. The hardening relation is modelled as a piecewise linear relation in a step by step procedure. The linear hardening parameter is adapted to reduce the residual between experimental and calculated tensile forces. The SMM is used to characterize the post necking behaviour of a ferritic boron steel and the results are compared with the commonly used inverse modelling method. It is shown that the stepwise modelling method characterizes the true stress, true plastic strain relation in an effective and com-putational efficient way. Furthermore, the SMM is used to characterize the stress state evolution during tensile testing, which is an important factor for failure and fracture mod-elling. This method is shown in an aerospace application for the nickel based super alloy Alloy 718. A study on simulating the whole comments lifespan from blank to fractured component is presented by producing a laboratory scale UHSS-component and testing it until fracture. The component performance simulation is based on results obtained by SMM for paint baked fully hardened boron steel. To enable the post necking characterization of anisotropic sheet metals like aluminium alloys an updated SMM version based on an anisotropic plasticity model is presented and evaluated for the aluminium alloys AA6016 and AA5754. Finally, the fracture behaviour of an automotive 6000 series alu-minium alloy in different directions is presented. In this study a GISSMO failure model is calibrated based on full field measurements under different stress states and evaluated on a multi triaxiality tensile specimen.The results shown in this thesis are that the presented Stepwise Modelling Method is an effective and efficient alternative method to characterize the deformation and failure of sheet metals. Based on the results of this method plasticity and fracture models can be calibrated and used for advanced forming and component performance simulations. This can lead to reduce time and costs during the development processes of new materials and products.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2021
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87209 (URN)978-91-7790-930-9 (ISBN)978-91-7790-931-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-11-23, E632, Luleå, 14:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-09-27 Created: 2021-09-24 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved

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Marth, StefanHäggblad, Hans-åkeOldenburg, Mats

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