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Experimental and numerical study of potassium chloride flow using smoothed particle hydrodynamics
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5206-6894
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3907-0802
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7514-0513
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0910-7990
2018 (English)In: Minerals Engineering, ISSN 0892-6875, E-ISSN 1872-9444, Vol. 116, p. 88-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Materials in granular form are widely used in industry and in the society as a whole. Granular materials can have various behaviours and properties. An accurate prediction of their flow behaviour is important to avoid handling and transportation issues. In this study, the flow behaviour of dry potassium chloride (KCl) in granular form was investigated experimentally and simulated numerically. The aim was to develop numerical tools to predict the flow of KCl in transportation and handling systems and granular material flow in various industrial applications. Two experimental setups were used to quantify the flow of KCl. In the first setup, the collapse of an axisymmetric granular column was investigated. In the second setup, digital image correlation was used to obtain velocity field measurements of KCl during the discharge of a flat-bottomed silo. The two experiments were represented numerically using two-dimensional computational domains. The smoothed particle hydrodynamics method was used for the simulations, and a pressure-dependent, elastic-plastic constitutive model was used to describe the granular materials. The numerical results were compared to the experimental observations, and an adequate qualitative and quantitative agreement was found for the granular column collapse and the silo discharge. Overall, the simulated flow patterns showed adequate agreement with the experimental results obtained in this study and with the observations reported in the literature. The experimental measurements, in combination with the numerical simulations, presented in this study adds to the knowledge of granular material flow prediction. The results of this study highlights the potential of numerical simulation as a powerful tool to increase the knowledge of granular material handling operations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018. Vol. 116, p. 88-100
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62669DOI: 10.1016/j.mineng.2017.11.003ISI: 000424172900012OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-62669DiVA, id: diva2:1084346
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-01-25 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-03-24 Created: 2017-03-24 Last updated: 2019-03-14Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Modelling and Characterisation of Granular Material Flow
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling and Characterisation of Granular Material Flow
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Granular materials are very common both in nature and in industry, and their extensive use means that there are financial incentives for increased efficiency. There are huge costs related to their use and handling, which is a major motivation for increased knowledge of the behaviour of granular materials at different loading conditions. The development of tools for numerical simulation of granular materials at diverse flow conditions gives the opportunity to study and optimise various industrial processes. In order for such tools to be trustworthy, calibration and validation against experimental results is essential. Thus, experimental methods for accurate measurement and characterisation of granular material flow are required. The objective of this thesis is to contribute to the knowledge of experimental characterisation and numerical modelling of non-cohesive, dry granular materials, at dissimilar flow conditions. In order to fulfil this objective, an experimental method, able to capture the flow behaviour of granular materials is developed. The method is based on the digital image correlation technique, and it is used for field measurements of displacement and velocity. The devised method is used to obtain field measurements for the flow of sand, tungsten carbide powder and potassium chloride. For modelling and simulation, the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) method, and a pressure-dependent, elastic-plastic constitutive model are used.

In this thesis, experimental characterisation and numerical modelling of granular material flow is performed in a number of applications. An experimental powder filling rig is used to study the flow during filling of sand into a die. A high-speed digital camera is used to record the flow, and the digital image correlation technique is used to obtain field measurements during the filling. This method is also applied in another experimental setup, where flow during filling of spherical tungsten carbide powder into a die is studied. The filling of tungsten carbide powder is simulated using the SPH method, and the results are compared to the field measurements with good agreement. Furthermore, the flow of potassium chloride is studied experimentally in the collapse of a granular column and in the discharge from a flat bottomed silo. The material flow process in both the column collapse and silo discharge are simulated using the SPH method. The results from simulations are found to be in agreement with observations reported in literature, and with experimental measurements obtained in this work. In conclusion, an experimental method for characterising granular material flow through field measurements is presented. The method is used to support the exploration of numerical tools for modelling and simulation of granular material flow. Furthermore, the high accuracy field measurements are used for improved calibration and validation of numerical methods. Reliable numerical simulations allows for study of the mechanisms that are present during granular material flow, mechanisms that might be hard or even impossible to investigate experimentally. The work within the present thesis contributes to the knowledge of both experimental characterisation and numerical modelling of granular material flow.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-62670 (URN)978-91-7583-853-3 (ISBN)978-91-7583-854-0 (ISBN)
Presentation
2017-06-16, E231, Luleå, 10:00
Available from: 2017-03-28 Created: 2017-03-24 Last updated: 2018-04-12Bibliographically approved
2. Particle Methods for Modelling Granular Material Flow
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Particle Methods for Modelling Granular Material Flow
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Partikelmetoder för modelleringav granulära flöden
Abstract [en]

Granular materials are very abundant in nature and are often used in industry, wherethe dynamics of granular material ow is of relevance in many processes. There arestrong economic and environmental incentives for increased eciency in handling andtransporting granular materials. Despite being common, the mechanical behaviour ofgranular materials remains challenging to predict and a unifying theory describing granularmaterial ow does not exist. If the ambition is an ecient industrial handling ofgranular materials, increased knowledge and understanding of their behaviour is of utmostimportance. In the present thesis, particle-based numerical methods are used formodelling granular material ow. In this context, particle-based methods refer to the useof particles as a discretization unit in numerical methods. Particle-based modelling canbe divided in two main approaches: discrete and continuum. In a discrete approach, eachphysical particle in the granular mass is modelled as a discrete particle. Newton's secondlaw of motion combined with a contact model governs the behaviour of the granular mass.In a continuum approach, the granular material is modelled using a constitutive law relatingstresses and strains. As a discrete approach, the discrete element method (DEM) isused and as a continuum approach the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) methodand the particle nite element method (PFEM) are used. Furthermore, an experimentalmethodology able to capture the ow behaviour of granular materials is developed. Themethodology is based on digital image correlation and it is used to obtain the in-planevelocity eld for granular material ow. This thesis covers experimental measurementsand numerical modelling of granular material ow in a number of applications. In paperA, an experimental powder lling rig is used to study the ow of sand. With thisrig, a methodology for obtaining the in-plane velocity eld of a granular material ow isdeveloped. This methodology is applied in paper B, to quantify the ow of a tungstencarbide powder. The powder is modelled using the SPH method, with good agreementto experimental results. In paper C, the ow of potassium chloride fertilizers is modelledusing the SPH method, and in Paper D the PFEM is explored for modelling of granularmaterial ow. The numerical models are validated against experimental results, suchas in-plane velocity eld measurements. In paper E, coupled nite element, DEM andPFEM models are used to model the physical interactions of grinding media, slurry andmill structure and in a stirred media mill. The ndings in the present thesis support theestablishment of particle-based numerical methods for modelling granular material owin a number of dierent applications. Furthermore, a methodology for calibration andvalidation of numerical models is developed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73199 (URN)978-91-7790-332-1 (ISBN)978-91-7790-333-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-05-16, E231, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-03-15 Created: 2019-03-14 Last updated: 2019-04-26Bibliographically approved

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Larsson, SimonGustafsson, GustafHäggblad, Hans-åkeJonsén, Pär

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