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On failure of high strength steel bridge roller bearings
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3492-7958
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis is concerned with failure analysis of high strength steel bridge roller bearings.Paper Adescribes how the commonly used Hertz formulas for contact stresses underestimate the actual stresses in practice due to temperature differences, misalignments and other construction-related conditions. In this paper, finite element analyses of bridge roller bearings were carried out to investigate the accuracy of the traditional roller bearing design rules in view of issues such as girder deformability, misalignment imperfections and material nonlinearity. The results first indicated that roller bearings develop contact stress concentrations at the outer edges of the rollers. Second, it was shown that the contact stresses are very sensitive to misalignment imperfections between the bridge girder and the abutment. Third, it was shown that the roller bearings develop inelastic deformation at relatively low loads in relation to the design load.In Paper B, the finite element method was employed to gain an understanding of the behaviour of a cracked bridge roller bearing in service. The cracked roller was considered as a two-dimensional edge-cracked disk subjected to a diametrical compressive line load. The crack parameters, stress intensity factor Mode I, KI and Mode II ,KII were calculated for the relevant load configuration and angle of disk rotation. The calculated data for KIwere also used to check the accuracy of approximate stress intensity factor solutions reported earlier for Mode I. For plain Mode I loading very good agreement was found between the obtained results and data presented in Schindler and Morf (1994).

Paper Cis aimed at finding the likely failure mechanism of a bridge roller bearing made of high strength martensitic stainless steel. Spectroscopy and finite element stress analysis of the roller indicated that an initial radial surface crack, found at an end face of the roller and close to the contact region, was induced by stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The initial crack subsequently changed shape and increased in size under growth through fatigue and finally formed a quarter-circle radial crack centred on the end face corner of the roller. Numerically computed stress intensity factors for the final crack showed that crack loading was predominantly in Mode II. For a crack size as observed on the fracture surface, the maximum service load, as specified by the manufacturer, enhanced by a certain roller bearing misalignment effect, was sufficient for failure through fracture.InPaper D, after a brief summary of the history of high strength stainless steel bearings, the paper reviews service experience of failed bearings in Sweden and elsewhere. Accompanying finite element analyses were performed in order to gain better insight into the likely failure mechanism. Finally, thiscomprehensive review leads to a conclusion that identifies the causes of the failures occurred and makes some recommendations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2017.
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65215ISBN: 978-91-7583-941-7 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7583-942-4 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-65215DiVA, id: diva2:1134615
Public defence
2017-09-28, F 1031, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 10:00
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-21 Last updated: 2018-08-31Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The Contact Problem of Roller Bearings: Investigation of Observed Failures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Contact Problem of Roller Bearings: Investigation of Observed Failures
2016 (English)In: Structural Engineering International, ISSN 1016-8664, E-ISSN 1683-0350, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 207-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present paper addresses how the commonly used Hertz formulas for contact stresses underestimate the actual stresses seen in practice due to temperature differentials, misalignments and other contruction-related defects. First, two failure cases of Swedish bridge roller bearings are analyzed and discussed; then, a detailed finite element (FE) model is used to investigate the accuracy of the traditional roller bearing design rules in view of issues such as abutment and girder deformability, misalignment imperfections and material nonlinearity. The bearing capacity of the studied rollers as provided by the manufacturer is used as reference. A rigorous FE model that accurately models girder, roller assembly and abutment provides the necessary information for the assessment of the related contact stresses, which were traditionally calculated by means of the Hertz analytical formulas. Numerical results first establish that roller bearings develop contact stress concentrations at the outer edges of the cylindrical drums. Second, it is established that the contact stresses are very sensitive to misalignment imperfections between the bridge girder and the abutment. Last, it is shown that the roller bearings develop inelastic deformation at relatively low loads in relation to the design load. These reasons, combined with the unlikelihood for roller bearings to shake-down, constitute the basis of the observed roller bearing failures.

National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60309 (URN)10.2749/101686616X14555429843762 (DOI)000386695500003 ()2-s2.0-84997850241 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-11-21(andbra)

Available from: 2016-11-11 Created: 2016-11-11 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
2. Determination of stress intensity factors for cracked bridge roller bearings using finite element analyses
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of stress intensity factors for cracked bridge roller bearings using finite element analyses
2017 (English)In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 169, p. 67-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, the finite element method is employed to gain an understanding of the behaviour of a cracked bridge roller bearing in service. The cracked roller is considered as an edge-cracked disk (two-dimensional plane strain system) subjected to a radial compressive line load. The crack parameters KI and KII are calculated for the relevant load configuration and angle of disk rotation. The calculated data are also used to check the accuracy of approximate SIF solutions reported earlier [1] and [2]. For plain Mode I loading very good agreement is found between the obtained results and data presented in Schindler and Morf (1994). 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Building Technologies Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Steel Structures; Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-60184 (URN)10.1016/j.engfracmech.2016.10.018 (DOI)000392035000005 ()2-s2.0-84997831957 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 2; 2016-12-05 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2016-11-07 Created: 2016-11-07 Last updated: 2019-06-04Bibliographically approved
3. Failure analysis of martensitic stainless steel bridge roller bearings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Failure analysis of martensitic stainless steel bridge roller bearings
2017 (English)In: Engineering Failure Analysis, ISSN 1350-6307, E-ISSN 1873-1961, Vol. 79, p. 1017-1030Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper is aimed at finding the likely failure mechanism of a bridge roller bearing made of high strength martensitic stainless steel. Spectroscopy and finite element stress analysis of the roller indicated that an initial radial surface crack, found at an end face of the roller and close to the contact region, was induced by stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The initial crack subsequently changed shape and increased in size under growth through fatigue and finally formed a quarter-circle radial crack centred on the end face corner of the roller. Numerically computed stress intensity factors for the final crack showed that crack loading was predominantly in Mode II. For a crack size as observed on the fracture surface, the maximum service load, as specified by the manufacturer, enhanced by a certain roller bearing misalignment effect, was sufficient for failure through fracture.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Brittle fracture, Failure analysis, Finite element analysis, Stress intensity factors
National Category
Engineering and Technology Building Technologies Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Steel Structures; Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-64139 (URN)10.1016/j.engfailanal.2017.06.035 (DOI)000405538800081 ()2-s2.0-85021167493 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-06-27 (andbra)

Available from: 2017-06-17 Created: 2017-06-17 Last updated: 2019-09-12Bibliographically approved
4. Failures of high strength stainless steel bridge roller bearings: A review
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Failures of high strength stainless steel bridge roller bearings: A review
2017 (English)In: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 180, p. 315-329Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the innovation of elastomeric bearings in the mid-1950s steel bearings lost their interest and significance both in research and development and subsequently even in application. Steel bearings were gradually abandoned in bridges, followed by the technical literature and design standards. However, a great number of steel bearings remain today in service world-wide and will pose their particular challenges in the future. To the author’s knowledge, just in Sweden, high strength stainless steel bearings still exist in no less than some 650 bridges. In recent years, a large number of such bearings have failed with an alarmingly high frequency in Sweden during a period of six to twenty years after installation making them a serious maintenance cost issue.

After a brief summary of the history of high strength stainless steel bearings, the paper reviews service experience of such bearings in Sweden and elsewhere. Accompanying finite element analyses were performed in order to gain insight into the likely failure mechanism. Finally, this comprehensive review leads to a conclusion that identifies the causes of the failures occurred and makes some recommendations.

Although previous investigations of the stainless steel bearings have not been able to clearly identify the cause(s) of the failures occurred, it is found that the failures primarily occurred due to initiation of cracks through stress corrosion cracking followed by fatigue crack growth requiring a certain stress range and a sufficiently large number of cycles until final failure ensued through sudden and instable fracture after fatigue growth to a critical crack size.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Bridge roller bearing, Failure analysis, Finite element method, Linear elastic fracture mechanics
National Category
Building Technologies Applied Mechanics
Research subject
Steel Structures; Solid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-64570 (URN)10.1016/j.engfracmech.2017.06.004 (DOI)000405763700021 ()2-s2.0-85020843781 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-08-09 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2019-09-12Bibliographically approved

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Noury, Pourya

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