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Governance for sustainable development of major European transport corridors: The Scandinavian-Mediterranean TEN-T core network corridor
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water. (Arkitektur - Trafikteknik)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8624-8271
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Intermodal road, rail, air and sea transport networks across the European Union (EU) calledTrans-European Networks for Transport (TEN-T) are currently being implemented. Keyelements, which should be implemented by 2030, are the most strategic TEN-T Core networkcorridors. These nine corridors are expected to enhance smoothness and sustainability oftransport across the EU, thereby enhancing cohesion between EU nations, and relate to non-EU nations. In the EU Regulation 1315/2013 a governance framework for implementation ofthe Core network corridors is outlined, which mainly involves appointment of a Europeancoordinator for each corridor, establishment of Corridor forums for consultations, andformulation of work plans and follow-up measures.This framework is now being implemented in practice. A recognised challenge in the processis engaging the numerous, diverse stakeholders. A possible solution is to introduceappropriate elements of complementary governance. Thus, in this doctoral research, suitablecomplementary governance to support the sustainable development of a Core networkcorridor was investigated. Complementary governance, a concept that was developed andrefined during the project, refers here to additional governance in relation to the governanceframework described for the EU Core network corridors in the EU Regulation 1315/2013.To address an identified gap in knowledge on the nature and utility of complementarygovernance a series of studies was carried out. The studies included a study of relevantacademic literature, studies of EU transport policy and implementation documents regardinggovernance and sustainability, a survey of views of Scandinavian-Mediterranean Corridorforum participants, and interviews with stakeholders in the Baltic Sea region. These studiescollectively constitute a case study, focusing on the Scandinavian-Mediterranean Corenetwork corridor, of the need for, and if a need is present the optimal design of,complementary governance in the process of sustainable development of a Core networkcorridor.The main findings of the studies are that the implementation process of the Core networkcorridors could benefit from complementary governance measures, mainly to increaseinclusiveness, which is crucial for a sustainable development. Complementary governancecould both deepen and broaden stakeholder awareness and involvement. This may haveseveral advantages, such as increasing possibilities for stakeholders to influence the processand benefit from the corridor, align activities, and promote cooperation and learning betweenstakeholders. Moreover, including stakeholders who are based outside the corridors mayimprove distributive aspects of the investments and reduce risks of focusing attention tooclosely on the corridors per se. However, broadening stakeholder inclusion also hasdisadvantages, as it increases the complexity of the process, which may impair itseffectiveness, and may lead to unrepresentative involvement due to differences instakeholders’ interests, administrative capacities and power. It also increases requirements forcoordination.The nature of complementary governance is multifaceted and related to diverse dimensions ofgovernance, such as processes, stakeholder participation and implementation documents. For complementary governance measures a flexible and task-specific multi-level design isemphasised, which may involve various types of engagement mechanisms. Further, thefindings showed a need to extend previously recognised types of public engagementmechanisms based on communication, consultation and participation in the decision-makingstage, by recognising another category, named stakeholder exchange. This category ischaracterised by stakeholder cooperation and collaboration in an implementation stage wheremain goals and policies already are in place.Areas for complementary governance in the implementation process of the Core networkcorridors were indicated in the interview study. They consisted of extended involvement ofprivate stakeholders, extended involvement of regional and local stakeholders, extendedinvolvement of stakeholders geographically external to the immediate corridor, and extendedinformation both generally and specifically (i.e. directed information to specific stakeholders).Several complementary governance measures that could potentially improve implementationof the Core network corridors were raised in the interviews, ranging from minor adjustment inthe existing process to entirely new solutions. These ideas correspond well to the indicatedareas and provide robust foundations for further discussion.Thus, findings from the research suggest several governance measures to systematicallyinvolve and engage diverse stakeholders in the Core network corridor implementationprocess. However, before introducing such measures, they should be assessed together withexisting governance measures, to avoid overlapping or contradictory initiatives, possiblyusing policy packaging approaches, where policies are combined and analysed together toachieve a desired overall outcome. Proposals for future research and practices are presented.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2017.
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65579ISBN: 978-91-7583-961-5 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7583-962-2 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-65579DiVA, id: diva2:1140184
Public defence
2017-11-10, E632, 09:00 (English)
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationAvailable from: 2017-09-12 Created: 2017-09-11 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Complementary governance for sustainable development in transport: the European TEN-T Core Network Corridors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Complementary governance for sustainable development in transport: the European TEN-T Core Network Corridors
2018 (English)In: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 674-682Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When implementing major European transport corridors, such as the Core network corridors (CNC) which is a part of the European Trans-European Network for Transports (TEN-T), the number of stakeholders affected is huge. A governance framework for the CNC’s implementation was introduced in EU Regulation No. 1315/2013, and is now being enacted. Sustainable development and stakeholder involvement are crucial areas in the implementation. This interview study investigated the need for complementary governance, here meaning governance in addition to the governance framework set in the regulation. The interviews involved 23 individuals from the Baltic Sea Region, who are affiliated to the four categories public authority, infrastructure organisation/company, private company and other organisation. The results confirm the importance of an inclusive approach. Further, the results showed a need to ensure that all three social, economic and ecological dimensions of sustainability are considered. Summarising the interview results, four areas for attention in the further CNC implementation process were identified: more and directed information, extended involvement of private sector transport stakeholders, extended involvement of regional and local stakeholders, and involvement of stakeholders located geographically outside the immediate corridor. Complementary governance can be a tool to address these areas, as governance structures and processes can involve stakeholders and steer towards desired outcomes. The interviewees own ideas for complementary governance are presented in this paper.

The CNC implementation is currently an on-going process and these results will be further utilised in the process, as a basis for stakeholder discussions of changes in practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Governance, Sustainability, Transport corridor, Interview study, Baltic Sea Region
National Category
Architectural Engineering
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65143 (URN)10.1016/j.cstp.2018.08.006 (DOI)000450263400024 ()2-s2.0-85052791311 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-11-30 (inah)

Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
2. Governance of Major Transport Corridors Involving Stakeholders
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Governance of Major Transport Corridors Involving Stakeholders
2016 (English)In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 14, p. 860-868Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper governance for developing main transport corridors in the European Union was examined by means of document- and literature studies. European Union transport policy documents were studied as well as legislation regarding development of the trans-European transport network (TEN-T). One of the most strategic parts of the TEN-T, the Scandinavian – Mediterranean (ScanMed) transport corridor, was particularly studied with documents concerning the implementation of ScanMed. Qualitative content analyses have been conducted and three themes consisting of “governance organisation”, “actors” and “governance in practical implementation process” were studied.It was concluded that a broad range of stakeholders have to contribute in order to accomplish a well-functioning transport system. Accordingly the studied policy, legislative and implementation documents all concern governance matters in various ways. Depending on the actual transport initiative, and its objectives, stakeholder involvement can vary. A framework for governance arrangements for the most strategic parts of TEN-T, the Core network corridors is set in a regulation. A European coordinator was appointed for each Core network corridor and has an important role in facilitating the implementation. Such governance structure was already foreseen in earlier policy documents. Corridor forum is a new tool aiming to bring key stakeholders together for consultative purposes and in addition working groups can be connected to the Corridor forums. The policy and legislative documents have a focus on the responsibilities and activities for the European Commission and the concerned Member states. The importance of other stakeholders such as cities, ports, regional authorities, private actors is mentioned, but their activities are not explicitly stated in these formal European documents. However, participation of various stakeholders in the ScanMed Core network corridor implementation process is tangible, especially when concrete projects are discussed. Further, in the ScanMed Core network corridor implementation process the Corridor forum is explored as a new tool for bringing stakeholders together, progressively reaching an increasing number of stakeholders, including users of infrastructure in future stages. Encompassing eight countries and several modes of transport a large number of stakeholders are indicated. The idea of future ideas laboratories acting as meeting spots for development of the transport corridor on specific topics, and bringing a variety of stakeholders together, is interesting.A key challenge for future implementation of the ScanMed Core network corridor is the large number of stakeholders concerned by a transnational and multimodal transport system. Governance design to strengthen involvement of stakeholders in European transports initiatives such as the TEN-T should be encouraged. Suitable forums for cooperation and collaboration for inclusiveness for various actors need to be elaborated, where common overarching objectives need to be agreed upon. These forums have to be developed together with concerned stakeholders so that choice of forum is suitable due to its expected function. Key stakeholders which can actively contribute to progress and new ideas need to be connected to the process. And developed working groups, ideas laboratories and similar, on a geographical basis for parts of the corridor or for a specific topic, need to be adequately bridged to a European level.

National Category
Architectural Engineering
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-29541 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2016.05.034 (DOI)000383251000092 ()2-s2.0-84991206351 (Scopus ID)30c9553c-2851-480f-a829-3a1f8a8b5fea (Local ID)30c9553c-2851-480f-a829-3a1f8a8b5fea (Archive number)30c9553c-2851-480f-a829-3a1f8a8b5fea (OAI)
Conference
Transport Research Arena : Moving forward 18/04/2016 - 21/04/2016
Note

Validerad; 2016; Nivå 1; 2016-10-31 (andbra); Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
3. Expected benefits and drawbacks of Baltic Sea European transport corridors: implications for complementary governance of TEN-T Core network corridors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expected benefits and drawbacks of Baltic Sea European transport corridors: implications for complementary governance of TEN-T Core network corridors
2018 (English)In: Cogent Business & Management, E-ISSN 2331-1975, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 1423870Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, stakeholders’ expected benefits and concerns are presented regarding the development of Core Network Corridors (CNCs) within the European transport initiative, the Trans-European Network for Transports. An interview study was conducted with 23 stakeholders from different parts of the society in the Baltic Sea area. The results show that stakeholders have a range of expectations, both positive and negative, for the development of the CNC. Stakeholders’ views were sorted into three categories based on the gathered data: matters that are already regulated; unregulated matters that often include vaguely defined responsibilities and require diverse stakeholder engagement for improvement; and matters for which there are concerns about negative outcomes. The results indicate (a) a need for cost-effective complementary governance, here described as additional governance measures to those regulated in the initial framework, (b) that a wider group of stakeholders than is currently involved is needed in the on-going implementation process. Additional regional and local level stakeholders, within and outside of the CNC, and private businesses, would enhance the benefits and/or mitigate negative implications of the developed CNCs, (c) an openness for complementary governance in the on-going CNC implementation process. This openness needs to be considered when developing models for policy packaging.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cogent OA, 2018
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics Architectural Engineering
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65142 (URN)10.1080/23311975.2018.1423870 (DOI)000424844100001 ()2-s2.0-85045254901 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 2;2018-02-09 (rokbeg)

Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
4. Major transport corridors: the concept of sustainability in EU documents
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Major transport corridors: the concept of sustainability in EU documents
2017 (English)In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 25, p. 3698-3706Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper results are presented from document- and literature studies examining how the concepts of sustainability and sustainable development (economical, ecological and social) are used in the process of developing main transport corridors in the European Union.  Particular focus has been placed on the Scandinavian-Mediterranean (ScanMed) transport corridor, a strategic part of the trans-European network for transports (TEN-T). European Union transport policy documents were studied along with the legislation for TEN-T and documents regarding implementation of the ScanMed corridor.

The paper highlights that the concept of sustainable development is used in a multifaceted way, sometimes indicating the overarching goal of sustainability, sometimes indicating certain dimensions, and sometimes referring to conducting efforts in a sustainable way. This implies that stakeholders are led to perceive the concept in various ways, influencing how measures are implemented and how the economic, ecological and social dimensions of sustainability are integrated. Reinforcing a holistic perspective of sustainability and sustainable development as integrating economic, ecological and social benefits for a desired development would avoid the perception of sustainability as merely addressing a specific dimension, like environmental concerns. In part this could be strengthened by clearly framing the particular dimensions of sustainability being addressed in different parts of major transport corridor documents, for example; “economic sustainability” or “social sustainability”.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Architectural Engineering Other Civil Engineering
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-63982 (URN)10.1016/j.trpro.2017.05.339 (DOI)000404963803055 ()2-s2.0-85020309934 (Scopus ID)
Conference
World Conference on Transport Research - WCTR 2016 Shanghai. 10-15 July 2016
Note

Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2017-06-14 Created: 2017-06-14 Last updated: 2018-07-10Bibliographically approved
5. Main content of Governance structure for transport corridors
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Main content of Governance structure for transport corridors
2017 (English)Other (Other academic)
Publisher
p. 6
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65578 (URN)
Available from: 2017-09-11 Created: 2017-09-11 Last updated: 2017-11-24Bibliographically approved

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