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The Economic Value and Use of Geological Information
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-8738-2715
2017 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The overall purpose of this thesis is to investigate the economic value and use of geological information. Earthobservations of a geological nature, may have profound impacts on peoples everyday lives. Geological informationplays a key role in addressing the challenges of sustainable development, and contributes to improved decisionmakingprocesses related to, for instance, land degradation and water protection. Still, few have researched theeconomic values attached to such information. This thesis contains an introduction and five self-contained papers.Paper (I) provides a review of previous research addressing the economic value of geological information andother earth observations, as well as, related products, services and infrastructure. The paper also identifiesimportant lessons and topics that require increased attention in future research. The review of prior research showsthat significant economic benefits can be attached to the use of geological information. Still, it is often difficult tocompare results across studies since they differ in scope and make alternative assumptions concerning whichsectors to cover. Furthermore, previous research is not uniform in its treatment of potential (rather than onlyexisting) users, and it employs varying conceptions of avoided costs. The paper concludes that future researchshould devote more attention to the public and experience good characteristics of geological information and othertypes of earth observations, thus highlighting the preconditions for information adoption as well as addressing therole of potential users.Papers (II) and (III) investigate the determinants of adopting geological information in the public sector, with anemphasis on Swedish municipalities. Paper (II) contributes to the literature by providing theoretical explanationsand empirical findings on various individual and organizational factors influencing the adoption of geologicalinformation. The paper employs an information adoption model based on literature on diffusion of innovation. Itis estimated using data collected from 677 officials in all Swedish municipalities. The results indicate thatperceived usefulness and educational efforts have the largest influence on the adoption decision followed by agender effect. Furthermore, the results also show that organizational effects exist at the working unit level, butthere appear to be no spatial interactions across municipal boundaries.Paper (III) further investigates the adoption of geological information in the public sector by considering whetheranalyses of user patterns can be improved by considering an interrelated model estimation involving two types ofgeoinformation. The empirical tests focus on whether there are gender differences in how peer advice affects theuse of geoinformation. The information adoption model is estimated using probit and bivariate probits. Overall theresults indicate a more accurate prediction pattern when a secondary geoinformation decision was included, thussuggesting that different types of geoinformation should be analyzed jointly. The officials at Swedishmunicipalities tend to use both types of geoinformation, thus alluding to a demand for combined geoinformationproducts among the target population. Finally, there is evidence of women’s decisions to use geoinformation beingaffected by peer advice.Paper (IV) focuses on the economic value of hydrogeological information, namely water quality. The willingnessto pay (WTP) for reduced health risks following the exposure to emerging contaminants and microbial outbreaksin drinking water is assessed. Emerging contaminants, such as highly fluorinated substances (e..g., PFOA andPFOS), have been found in drinking water post treatment on a global level. The drinking water is the main sourceof exposure for humans. The WTP is assessed through a choice experiment approach, which also accounts fordifferences in perceptions between PFASs and microbial outbreaks due to parasites or bacteria. Knowledge aboutpublic preferences across different health threats is key to assessing support for policies aimed at reducing suchhealth risks. A majority of the respondents were found to have a higher WTP for reducing the risk of chemicalexposure to PFASs than reducing the corresponding risk of microbial outbreaks.In Paper (IV) it is evident that risk adverse individuals have a higher WTP for reducing health risks of drinkingwater, compared with individuals with other risk preferences. However, there is no consensus in the literature onhow to accurately capture risk preferences beyond financial decisions. Paper (V) therefore discusses thetheoretical assumptions used when measuring risk preferences and whether it is necessary to address domain riskspecific preferences. In order to test if a general risk preference is enough we present a hypothetical experimenton risk preferences for the health and financial domains, respectively. We also consider the design of theexperiment and compare the format with a reduced form to control for potential framing effects. The riskpreferences were elicited using switch multiple price list lotteries with hypothetical payments, and the questionswere adapted to the health domain by framing the lotteries as improvements in current health status using a visualanalogue scale as the reference point. The results show that individual risk preferences tend to be relativelyinconsistent across the two studied domains, and that the respondents appear to be more risk averse in the healthdomain than in the financial. The majority of the respondents tend to give too much weight to low-probabilityevents, which is consistent with cumulative prospect theory.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Luleå tekniska universitet, 2017.
Serie
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Nyckelord [en]
geological information, earth observations, economic value, information adoption
Nationell ämneskategori
Nationalekonomi
Forskningsämne
Nationalekonomi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65731ISBN: 978-91-7583-969-1 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-7583-970-7 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-65731DiVA, id: diva2:1142635
Disputation
2017-11-03, A109, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Forskningsfinansiär
Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning (SGU), 61-1451/2011Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-21 Skapad: 2017-09-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Delarbeten
1. The economic value of geological information: Synthesis and directions for future research
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The economic value of geological information: Synthesis and directions for future research
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Resources policy, ISSN 0301-4207, E-ISSN 1873-7641, Vol. 43, s. 91-100Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Geological information can play a key role in addressing challenges of sustainable development such as land degradation and groundwater protection, and contribute to improved decision-making processes. In this paper we: (a) provide a review of previous research on the economic value of geological information and other earth observations as well as related products, services and infrastructure; and (b) identify important lessons from this work as well as methodological challenges that require increased attention in future research. The review of prior research shows significant economic benefits attached to the generation of this type of public information. The value of geological information has typically been measured in terms of avoided costs. Still, it is difficult to compare results across studies since they differ in scope and make alternative assumptions concerning which sectors to cover. Furthermore, previous research is not uniform in their treatment of potential (rather than only existing) users, and employ varying conceptions of avoided costs. The paper concludes that future research should devote more attention to the public and experience good characteristics of this type of information, thus highlighting the preconditions for information adoption as well as addressing the role of potential users. A number of specific methodological challenges also deserve further scrutiny in future research, such as the use of discount rates and benefit-transfer approaches. We also provide some thoughts on how to proceed with such research.

Nationell ämneskategori
Nationalekonomi
Forskningsämne
Nationalekonomi; Framtidens gruvor (FOI)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-14017 (URN)10.1016/j.resourpol.2014.11.001 (DOI)000350940800009 ()2-s2.0-84920183571 (Scopus ID)d56cc340-d46d-4703-acbe-711c01f9f778 (Lokalt ID)d56cc340-d46d-4703-acbe-711c01f9f778 (Arkivnummer)d56cc340-d46d-4703-acbe-711c01f9f778 (OAI)
Anmärkning
Validerad; 2015; Nivå 2; 20141229 (andbra)Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-29 Skapad: 2016-09-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-07-10Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Factors influencing the adoption of geological information in Swedish municipalities
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Factors influencing the adoption of geological information in Swedish municipalities
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 60, nr 6, s. 1112-1126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

A geological map includes a description (e.g., geological composition and structures) as well as an interpretation of materials (e.g., porosity or extraction capacity). Geological maps are pertinent to city planning, infrastructure projects and environmental impact assessments. While the maps are identified in the literature as beneficial to society, few have discussed the adoption of geological maps. By investigating factors influencing information adoption, one can identify barriers for potential users. We consider the literature on diffusion of innovation and discuss the effects of information being a so-called ‘experience good,’ which implies high opportunity costs and sunk costs. The framework is empirically tested on survey data collected from officials in Swedish municipalities. The results suggest that perceived usefulness and educational effort have the largest influence on the adoption decision. Furthermore, the results indicate that organizational effects exist on the working unit level, but there are no spatial interactions across municipal boundaries.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Nationell ämneskategori
Nationalekonomi
Forskningsämne
Nationalekonomi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-59850 (URN)10.1080/09640568.2016.1198252 (DOI)000398537600010 ()2-s2.0-84990181174 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-03-24 (andbra)

Tillgänglig från: 2016-10-19 Skapad: 2016-10-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-01-29Bibliografiskt granskad
3. The interrelated use of geological information and other types of geoinformation in local governments
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The interrelated use of geological information and other types of geoinformation in local governments
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Transactions on GIS, ISSN 1361-1682, E-ISSN 1467-9671, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 1010-1022Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a growing interest in the use of geoinformation in government decision-making. Studies on the usability of geological information, which is one type of geoinformation, have however been scarce in the literature. A system built for an efficient organization may, therefore, not be catering to the needs of the individual user and understanding the perceived barriers to using geological information should be an important goal of geodata implementation. The objectives of this article are to: (1) investigate whether the analyses of user patterns are improved by considering an interrelated estimation with two types of geoinformation, and (2) explore whether there are gender differences in how peer advice affects the use of geoinformation. The data were collected in 2014 through a web survey, and the sample consisted of 390 women and 287 men working in Swedish municipalities. The results indicates a more accurate prediction pattern when a secondary geoinformation decision was included, thus suggesting that different types of geoinformation should be jointly analyzed. The officials tend to use both types of geoinformation, alluding to a demand for combined geoinformation products among the target population. Finally, there is evidence of women's decision to use geoinformation being affected by peer advice

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Nationell ämneskategori
Nationalekonomi
Forskningsämne
Nationalekonomi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61134 (URN)10.1111/tgis.12258 (DOI)000412577200010 ()
Anmärkning

Validerad;2017;Nivå 2;2017-10-10 (svasva)

Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-19 Skapad: 2016-12-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-24Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Willingness to pay for reduction in the health risks posed by emerging contaminants (PFASs) and microbial outbreaks in drinking water
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Willingness to pay for reduction in the health risks posed by emerging contaminants (PFASs) and microbial outbreaks in drinking water
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nyckelord
perceived health risks, emerging contaminants PFASs, PFAA, PFC, PFOS, PFOA, microbial outbreaks, gastrointestinal infections
Nationell ämneskategori
Nationalekonomi
Forskningsämne
Nationalekonomi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65730 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-19 Skapad: 2017-09-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-09-19
5. Risk preferences in Health and Financial choices
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Risk preferences in Health and Financial choices
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nyckelord
Risk preferences, lottery choice experiment, health risk behavior, financial risk behavior
Nationell ämneskategori
Nationalekonomi
Forskningsämne
Nationalekonomi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-65729 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-09-19 Skapad: 2017-09-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-13

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