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Energy savings in data centers: A framework for modelling and control of servers’ cooling
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Signals and Systems.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-7443-8174
Luleå University of Technology.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8235-9639
ABB Corporate Research, Västerås.
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2017 (English)In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, ISSN 1045-0823, E-ISSN 1797-318X, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 9050-9057Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aiming at improving the energy efficiency of air cooled servers in data centers, we devise a novel control oriented, nonlinear, thermal model of the servers that accounts explicitly for both direct and recirculating convective air flows. Instrumental to the optimal co-design of both geometries and cooling policies, we propose an identification methodology based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for a generic thermal network of m fans and n electronic components. The performance of the proposed modelling framework is validated against CFD measurements with promising results. We formalize the minimum cooling cost control problem as a polynomially constrained Receding Horizon Control (RHC) and show, in-silico, that the resulting policy is able to efficiently modulate the cooling resources in spite of the unknown future computational and electrical power loads.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017. Vol. 50, no 1, p. 9050-9057
National Category
Control Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Control Engineering; Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-66199DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2017.08.1624ISI: 000423965100009Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85031817824OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-66199DiVA, id: diva2:1150711
Conference
20th IFAC World Congress, Toulouse, France, 9-14 July 2017
Note

Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2017-10-19 Created: 2017-10-19 Last updated: 2019-09-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Cooling Control Strategies in Data Centers for Energy Efficiency and Heat Recovery
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cooling Control Strategies in Data Centers for Energy Efficiency and Heat Recovery
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Kylreglerstrategier i datacenter för energieffektivitet och värmeåtervinning
Abstract [en]

Data centers are facilities dedicated to the processing, storage, and relay of large amounts of digital information. As a whole, it is an energy intensive industry, characterized by a sizable carbon footprint and a short-term exponential growth rate. At a macroscopic level, their operation requires balancing the offer and demand of computational, cooling, and electrical power resources. The computational workload is influenced by external factors such as the end-users’ activity, while the overall run-time costs depend on the weather conditions and the fluctuating pricing of electricity. In this context, the adoption of optimizing control strategies and co-design methodologies that address simultaneously both the mechanical and control aspects, has the potential to unlock more sustainable designs. Improvements in the overall energetic efficiency open to larger-scale deployments in less favorable geographical locations. Recovery systems addressing the vast amounts of by-product heat can support other heat intensive processes such as district networks, wood drying, greenhouses, and food processing. This work focuses on how to adapt the provisioning of the cooling resources to the cooling demand, without negotiating the computational throughput. We devise top-down designs, that address unexplored control possibilities in existing deployments. We moreover apply a bottomup perspective, by modeling and studying co-designed cooling setups which bring significant simplifications to data center level optimal provisioning problems. The analysis aims at the different levels of the data center infrastructure hierarchy, and provides answers to centerpiece questions such as i) what are the optimal flow provisioning policies at different levels of the data centers?; ii) how to design simple but effective control strategies that address the complexity induced by the large scales?; iii) what are the exhaust heat properties that can be expected in air-cooled and liquid-cooled data centers?. Exploiting a model-centric approach we demonstrate the effectiveness of tailored control strategies in both achieving better cooling efficiency and a higher quality of the heat harvest. This thesis presents opportunities to simplify data center control structures while retaining or improving their performance. Furthermore, it lays modeling and control methodologies toward the holistic control-oriented treatment of the computing, cooling, and power distribution infrastructures. The results have a practical character and the model-based analysis establishes important development directions, confirming existing trends. Enabling intelligent data center management systems might not need to imply more complex tools; rather, a co-design effort might yield both simpler and effective control systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2019
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Control Engineering
Research subject
Control Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75917 (URN)978-91-7790-437-3 (ISBN)978-91-7790-438-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2019-11-05, A1545, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2019-10-16Bibliographically approved

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Lucchese, RiccardoLjung, Anna-LenaVaragnolo, Damiano

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