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CFD Simulations Comparing Hard Floor and Raised Floor Configurations in an Air Cooled Data Center
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-7355-5950
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-8235-9639
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-1033-0244
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: 12th International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Malaga, Spain, 11-13 July 2016, s. 450-455, 2016Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

An increasing number of companies and organisations have started to outsource their data storage. Although the potential of future investments in data centers is prosperous, sustainability is an increasingly important factor. It is important to make sure that the server racks in data centers are sufficiently cooled whereas too much forced cooling leads to economical losses and a waste of energy. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is an excellent tool to analyze the flow field in data centers. This work aims to examine the performance of the cooling system in a data center using ANSYS CFX. A hard floor configuration is compared to a raised floor configuration. When a raised floor configuration is used, the cold air is supplied into an under-floor space and enters the room through perforated tiles in the floor, located in front of the server racks. The flow inside the main components and the under-floor space is not included in the simulations. Boundary conditions are applied to the sides where the flow goes out of or into the components. The cooling system is evaluated based on a combination of two different performance metrics. Results show that the performance of the cooling system is significantly improved when the hard floor configuration is replaced by a raised floor configuration. The flow field of the air differs in the two cases. It is considered to be improved when the raised floor configuration is used as a result of reduced hot air recirculation around the server racks.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
2016.
Nationell ämneskategori
Strömningsmekanik och akustik
Forskningsämne
Strömningslära
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67959OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-67959DiVA, id: diva2:1191266
Konferens
International Conference on Heat Transfer, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics : 11/07/2016 - 13/07/2016
Tillgänglig från: 2018-03-16 Skapad: 2018-03-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-07Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Airflow in Data Centers
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Numerical and Experimental Study of Airflow in Data Centers
2018 (Engelska)Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Airflow management is crucial for the performance of cooling systems in data centers. The amount of energy consumed by data centers is huge and a large amount is related to the cooling. In attempts to develop energy efficient data centers, numerical methods are important for several reasons. Experimental procedures are more expensive and time consuming but when done carefully, experiments provide trustful results that can be used to validate simulations and give additional insights. Numerical methods in their turn have the advantage that they can be applied to proposed designs of data centers before they are built and not only to already existing data centers.

In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to study the airflow in data centers. The aim is to use an experimentally validated CFD model to investigate the effects of using different designs in data centers with respect to the performance of the cooling systems. Important parameters such as quality of the computational grid, boundary conditions and choice of turbulence model must be carefully considered in order for the results from simulations to be reliable.

In Paper A, a hard floor configuration where the cold air is supplied directly into the data center is compared to a raised floor configuration where the cold air is supplied into an under-floor space instead and enters the data center through perforated tiles in the floor. In Paper B, the performance of different turbulence models are investigated and velocity measurements are used to validate the CFD model. In Paper C, the performance of different cooling systems is further investigated by using an experimentally validated CFD model. The effects of using partial aisle containment in the design of data centers are evaluated for both hard and raised floor configurations.

Results show that the flow fields in data centers are very complex with large velocity gradients. The k − ε model fails to predict low velocity regions. Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) and Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) produce very similar results and based on solution times, it is recommended to use RSM to model the turbulent airflow in data centers. Based on a combination of performance metrics where both intake temperatures for the server racks and airflow patterns are considered, the airflow management is significantly improved in raised floor configurations. Using side covers to partially enclose the aisles performs better than using top covers or open aisles.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018
Serie
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Nationell ämneskategori
Strömningsmekanik och akustik
Forskningsämne
Strömningslära
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67781 (URN)978-91-7790-062-7 (ISBN)978-91-7790-063-4 (ISBN)
Presentation
2018-04-25, E632, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 10:00
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2018-03-01 Skapad: 2018-02-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-07Bibliografiskt granskad

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