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Producing space in Living Labs: Reflexive analysis in the contexts of Kiruna and Gällivare
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Arkitektur och vatten.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-9191-9677
(engelsk)Inngår i: Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Living labs are popular in urban design research, but have been mostly used in contexts of big cities. Here we describe living labs conducted in mining, Kiruna and Gällivare, undergoing major urban transformations due to the mining activities causing ground deformations. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how space is produced in the discussions attractiveness and social sustainability in the Living labs in relation to the towns and the urban transformations. Discussions on attractiveness and social sustainability are analyzed in terms of Lefebvrian dimensions (physical, mental, and social space) in theory of productions of space. Results show how construction of place combines time and space, as production of space becomes production of shared identity.

Emneord [en]
production of space, production of identity, urban environments, participatory action research, living lab
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70851OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-70851DiVA, id: diva2:1247764
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-09-13 Laget: 2018-09-13 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-29
Inngår i avhandling
1. Attractiveness in Urban Design: A study of the production of attractive places
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Attractiveness in Urban Design: A study of the production of attractive places
2018 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Alternativ tittel[sv]
Attraktivitet i urban design : En studie om hur attraktiva platser konstrueras och förstås
Abstract [en]

This research project investigates the production of attractive places, through theory form and everyday life. The research study was originally sprung from practical questions regarding the extensive use of the term attractiveness in urban planning and design. What is the term intended to address? How is the term understood in local contexts? How is the term transformed to built environments? The term is rarely scrutinized and criticized and the understanding of the term, its meaning and implications is diverse. Starting from critical urban theory, the research project critically scrutinizes the term and contrasts it with local citizens perspectives of attractive towns. The research project proceeds from the idea of that places are produced not only by planning and urban design professionals, but also by people living in and visiting a place (Lefebvre, 1991). The research question addressed is How is the term attractiveness in built environments understood and designed in the perspectives of architects/urban designers and local citizens, and how can the term be explained to inform future planning of attractive urban environments?

The research design consists of four sub-studies to investigate planning and local perspectives of attractiveness, its presentations and urban forms. The research design was set up in Kiruna and Gällivare, two mining towns in the sparsely populated Swedish north. These towns are undertaking major urban transformations due to the mining activities. Both municipalities explain the transformation processes as opportunities to become more attractive for people to settle as permanent residents. The term was investigated through discourse and qualitative content analysis, whilst the local citizen perspective was investigated through urban living labs.

The conclusion was that the urban planning and design sphere of place production defines the term attractiveness according to their challenges. The term addresses the contemporary situation of place competition where places compete about labour, companies and capital on a global market (Harvey, 1989; Brenner et al. 2014). A discourse of attractiveness can be formulated to focus on three interest areas: urban economics, social wellbeing, and urban townscapes. The term can further be explained as an approach of reinventing places as attractive through urbanization and agglomeration.

The local citizens idea of attractiveness is produced through societal challenges, local opportunities as well as practical experiences. The production of attractiveness is affected partly by everyday experiences and partly by assimilated knowledge about the place and society, from among others media reporting and official urban planning documents. As produced through knowledge, pedagogical processes also affect the idea of attractiveness. Physically, the attractive town is described as a place someone has cared of designing, including a legible town plan, locally distinct character, clear borders between built up areas and nature, and coherent connections between neighbourhoods.

Some reflections drawn from the studies. In order to create truly attractive places, the term attractiveness should be inclusive to perspectives of local citizens. There are, among others, an ethical concern and a potential in this statement. The ethical consideration is that the term attractiveness has different meanings by different communities and individuals; the use of the term is persuasive with the potential to hide agendas seen as attractive according to only some viewpoints. On the other hand there is a potential in acknowledging attractiveness as being produced by everyone practicing place; it opens possibilities for a more diverse and inclusive term with richer ideas of attractive places.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2018
Serie
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Emneord
attractiveness, urban design, urban critical studies, production of space
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Arkitektur
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70856 (URN)978-91-7790-197-6 (ISBN)978-91-7790-198-3 (ISBN)
Disputas
2018-11-08, E632, Luleå, 09:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-09-13 Laget: 2018-09-13 Sist oppdatert: 2018-10-17bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Small town, big move: Constructions of place in transiting mining communities
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Small town, big move: Constructions of place in transiting mining communities
2020 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Alternativ tittel[sv]
Konstruktioner av plats i gruvsamhällen i omvandling
Abstract [en]

The dissertation accounts for construction of place in small mining towns as they undergo major urban transformation. In 2010s urban centers in mining communities in northern Sweden, Gällivare and Kiruna started to undergo big scale urban transformation because of ground subsidence caused by mining activities, and the transformation that continues in 2020. Ambition to make the transition socially sustainable and contribute to more attractive communities resulted in research projects with this focus.

 

The aim of this dissertation is to describe and analyze how place is constructed in established mining communities in transition through the following research questions: How is place constructed during dialogues on social sustainability and attractiveness? How do people of different age groups, professions and gender construct place in established mining communities in transition? What are the possibilities and limitations of different research methods in relation to including residents’ perspectives in the transformation process? The overall theoretical standpoint of this dissertation is that place is socially constructed: place is made by people discussing and describing it, by discourses that are produced and reproduced in social groups beyond the individual standpoints.

 

Five studies were conducted to investigate construction of place in the transiting mining communities of Kiruna and Gällivare using mixed methods: participatory action research in Living Labs, statistical logistics regression analysis, GIS 3D visualization. An analytical review of research on established mining communities, a 3D visualization of social issues in Gällivare, an analysis of Living lab with residents of Gällivare and Kiruna as well as a group of commuters to Gällivare, a comparative study of three co-creative processes in Kiruna, and a statistical analysis of construction of place in Kiruna over time. Different methods had different potential when it comes to understanding construction of place and thus including their perspective in the planning process: statistical method gave representative patterns of factors behind considering leaving and how those changed over time but was limited in understanding the contextual meaning of those patterns, Living Labs provided the opportunity to see how place is constructed in dialogues but was limited in understanding preferences and individual standpoints, 3D visualization provided spatial patterns beyond statistics and means for discussion and communication of those patterns with broad variety of actors but limited potential for their interpretation.

 

The results show that residents, while participating in dialogues on social sustainability and attractiveness, construct the transient communities through contradictory storylines. Bearing themes in construction of place were aggregated through storylines that residents constructed and reproduced, had different attitudes towards and referred to. The established storylines with long history such as model community, town constructed as a new establishment planned as modern and inclusive, nature and the town, the theme of beautiful natural surroundings valued by residents and visitors, the mountains, the forest, the rivers and the lakes; big city elsewhere, a big city used in the construction of Kiruna and Gällivare to show what those places are not, as a counterpoint; the cohesive town, the storyline of knowing “everyone”, spontaneously meeting, helping each other – were used to reestablish the sense of stability and reframe the new environment by connecting it to the construction of communities pasts. The storylines of hope of more inclusive and sustainable future, and broken promises of transformation that took more time and took different turns from what was communicated as the future - were used handle the change to imagined futures of place.

 

There were certain patterns in how people of different age groups, professions and gender construct place in transiting communities. The main difference in how men and women constructed Gällivare as attractive town, according to 3D visualization analysis, was that women were less content than men with built environment, following similar geographical patterns. Construction of Kiruna as a place to live (or leave) over time, has shown that while in 2011 blue collar workers were less prone and white collar workers more prone to consider leaving, in 2016 there were no significant differences between social classes in that regard. Generational patterns were similar: the younger, the more prone to consider leaving, but the gap between the youngest and the others has grown. The effect of social bonds that held back the will to move went from insignificant to visible for men and from significant to stronger for women. The hope of the transformed Kiruna, so present in 2011 was much less pronounced in 2016.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2020
Serie
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544Attract: Attraktiva, hållbara livsmiljöer i kallt klimat
Emneord
construction of place, Gällivare, Kiruna, transformation, rural studies, urban change
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Arbetsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-79069 (URN)978-91-7790-611-7 (ISBN)978-91-7790-612-4 (ISBN)
Disputas
2020-09-18, A109, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 13:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Forskningsfinansiär
Vinnova
Tilgjengelig fra: 2020-05-29 Laget: 2020-05-29 Sist oppdatert: 2020-05-29bibliografisk kontrollert

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