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Under the surface: Revealing how gender imbalance is created in governmental venture capitalists’ work processes
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-8816-4629
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Like other developed countries, Sweden has experienced gender ratio stagnation in entrepreneurship, where women entrepreneurs are underrepresented. According to a large body of literature, the ability to engage in entrepreneurial endeavors depends on entrepreneurs’ access to financial resources. However, research repeatedly shows that women often do not have the same access to funding as men and that male entrepreneurs are overrepresented in the financial support system for new ventures. In contrast with traditional lenders and investors (banks, venture capitalists, business angels, etc.), governmental venture capitalists (GVCs) have to adhere to national and EU regulations; thus, they must comply with gender equality requirements. However, national reports suggest that women and men entrepreneurs do not have the same access to governmental venture capital. Accordingly, to understand this imbalance in governmental finance distribution, the overall purpose of this thesis is to explore Swedish GVCs’ gender constructions in their external and internal communication, as well as in their cognition.

To understand how gender differences may occur in GVCs’ social constructions, I draw upon gender role congruity theory, which provides insights into perceptions and beliefs about women’s and men’s expected roles in society. Accordingly, to explore GVCs social construction at the three levels (external and internal communication, and cognition) I employ a mixed-method approach. By doing so I use a variety of data and research analyses to provide both depth and width on the issue at hand.

The empirical findings of the thesis reveal constant duality and dichotomies, and the construction of two distinct personas; they provide insights into the way the symbolism of entrepreneurship as a masculine endeavor is performed within GVCs’ work processes. The overall conclusion is that although GVCs are expected to be gender neutral in their work processes, an exploration of gender constructions in external and internal communication as well as cognitions confirms the existence of gender biases regarding both women and men entrepreneurs that undermine women and favor men. Considering the overall gender-neutral role GVCs are expected to play in providing gender equality in access of governmental venture capital, the thesis highlights the unconsciousness of gender bias as well as the difficulties of executing gender neutrality in practice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018.
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Business Administration Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71069ISBN: 978-91-7790-218-8 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-219-5 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-71069DiVA, id: diva2:1252532
Public defence
2018-11-09, A109, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
VINNOVAAvailable from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-02 Last updated: 2020-01-24Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Queen Bees and Alpha Males
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Queen Bees and Alpha Males
(English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71068 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-02 Created: 2018-10-02 Last updated: 2020-01-24
2. How vague entrepreneurial identities of Swedish women entrepreneurs are performed by government financiers
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How vague entrepreneurial identities of Swedish women entrepreneurs are performed by government financiers
2018 (English)In: Women entrepreneurs and the myth of 'underperformance': a new look at women's entrepreneurship research / [ed] edited by Shumaila Yousafzai, Alain Fayolle, Adam Lindgreen, Colette Henry, Saadat Saeed, Shandana Sheikh, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018, p. 107-124Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2018
National Category
Economics Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Accounting and Control; Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-68197 (URN)10.4337/9781786434500.00017 (DOI)2-s2.0-85046511984 (Scopus ID)9781786434494 (ISBN)9781786434500 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-10-02Bibliographically approved
3. Towards gender equal gender typing, or?: A study of Swedish governmental financers’ web communication through images
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards gender equal gender typing, or?: A study of Swedish governmental financers’ web communication through images
2018 (English)In: 21st Uddevalla Symposium, 2018, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70610 (URN)
Conference
21st Uddevalla Symposium, Luleå, Sweden, 14-16 June 2018
Available from: 2018-08-27 Created: 2018-08-27 Last updated: 2018-10-02Bibliographically approved
4. Gender signals of entrepreneurial orientation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender signals of entrepreneurial orientation
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Economics and Business
Research subject
Entrepreneurship and Innovation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71067 (URN)
Available from: 2018-10-02 Created: 2018-10-02 Last updated: 2020-01-24
5. When stereotypical gender notions see the light of day, will they burst?: Venture capitalists' gender constructions versus venturing performance facts
Open this publication in new window or tab >>When stereotypical gender notions see the light of day, will they burst?: Venture capitalists' gender constructions versus venturing performance facts
2018 (English)In: Journal of Business Venturing Insights, ISSN 2352-6734, Vol. 9, p. 32-38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although often discussed, there has been limited effort to match venture capitalists’ construction of gender notions with specific facts about the entrepreneurs’ venturing activities. This study shows how stereotypical gender notions of both men and women entrepreneurs are embedded in venture capitalists’ assessments and analyses as well as explores whether or not these notions have substance based on actual performance. Drawing on interview data and statistical analysis of objective key performance information from accounting reports, we identify four myths in the evaluations of 126 venture capital applications for governmental capital that do not have any significant empirical substance. We discuss these findings’ implications for the study of myths in women's entrepreneurship.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Economics
Research subject
Entrepreneurship and Innovation; Accounting and Control
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-67522 (URN)10.1016/j.jbvi.2018.01.002 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041598808 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2018;Nivå 1;2018-02-05 (andbra)

Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2018-10-02Bibliographically approved

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