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Numerical Investigation of the Aeroelastic Behavior of a Wind Turbine with Iced Blades
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8216-9464
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6025-2280
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Fluid and Experimental Mechanics.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7599-0895
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6016-6342
2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 12, article id 2422Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Wind turbines installed in cold-climate regions are prone to the risks of ice accumulation which affects their aeroelastic behavior. The studies carried out on this topic so far considered icing in a few sections of the blade, mostly located in the outer part of the blade, and their influence on the loads and power production of the turbine are only analyzed. The knowledge about the influence of icing in different locations of the blade and asymmetrical icing of the blades on loads, power, and vibration behavior of the turbine is still not matured. To improve this knowledge, multiple simulation cases are needed to run with different ice accumulations on the blade considering structural and aerodynamic property changes due to ice. Such simulations can be easily run by automating the ice shape creation on aerofoil sections and two-dimensional (2-D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of those sections. The current work proposes such methodology and it is illustrated on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) 5 MW baseline wind turbine model. The influence of symmetrical icing in different locations of the blade and asymmetrical icing of the blade assembly is analyzed on the turbine’s dynamic behavior using the aeroelastic computer-aided engineering tool FAST. The outer third of the blade produces about 50% of the turbine’s total power and severe icing in this part of the blade reduces power output and aeroelastic damping of the blade’s flapwise vibration modes. The increase in blade mass due to ice reduces its natural frequencies which can be extracted from the vibration responses of the turbine operating under turbulent wind conditions. Symmetrical icing of the blades reduces loads acting on the turbine components, whereas asymmetrical icing of the blades induces loads and vibrations in the tower, hub, and nacelle assembly at a frequency synchronous to rotational speed of the turbine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019. Vol. 12, no 12, article id 2422
Keywords [en]
wind turbine, icing, simulation, aeroelastic behavior, CFD
National Category
Energy Engineering Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Computer Aided Design; Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71180DOI: 10.3390/en12122422ISI: 000473821400195OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-71180DiVA, id: diva2:1255437
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-07-05 (johcin)

Available from: 2018-10-12 Created: 2018-10-12 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Impact of Icing on Wind Turbines Aerodynamic
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Icing on Wind Turbines Aerodynamic
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Påverkan av isbildning på vindkraftverk aerodynamik
Abstract [en]

Wind energy covered 11.6% of Europe electricity demand in 2017. Region with cold climates represent a strong potential for wind energy companies because of their sparse population and proper wind conditions. The global wind energy installations in cold climate regions is forecasted to reach a capacity of 186 GW by the end of 2020. But wind turbines installed in cold climate regions are prone to the risks of ice accumulation which affects their aerodynamics behavior, as well as the safety, and structural loads.

The aerodynamic forces on wind turbine can be affected in two main ways: ice accretion changes the blade profile, and thus the flow path curvature, and the surface roughness. The importance of these two parameters depend on the ice type. The target ice type for this thesis is the smooth leading-edge glaze ice with horn shape. The aerodynamic consequences of the blade profile change because of the mentioned ice type are studied in detail. 

The findings of this thesis are classified in five main sections. The first section considers the methodology to model the performance of a wind turbine. The wake behind the turbine is also explored. Different aspects of the simulation methods with computational fluid dynamics using the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations are investigated in both steady state and transient. In the second section, the time-dependent effects of icing are studied, exploring the moving vortices created by the irregularity of the ice and their frequencies and amplitudes. The main frequency modes of the flow dynamics were analyzed. In the third section, three-dimensional simulation of icing is implemented and the fluid flow arrangement through the rotor is investigated. Two well-recognized approaches are applied and compared, which are Blade Element Momentum (BEM) and CFD. An automated setup is programmed and launched to implement multiple CFD simulations to provide the aerodynamic data for structural analysis in the fourth section. The developed methodology is illustrated on a large-scale wind turbine. In section five, the effects of the uncertain level of ice-accretion is studied through an uncertainty quantification method. The aerodynamic losses are statistically discussed. Then, a scenario study is conducted according to the obtained polynomial chaos expansion, in which the probability distribution of wind power loss due to icing is inspected.

The achievements of this thesis can be used in to design of a wind turbine which is supposed to work in a cold climate, as well as assess the economics of a predesigned wind turbine working in a cold region.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2018
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Energy Engineering Applied Mechanics Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Research subject
Fluid Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71186 (URN)978-91-7790-228-7 (ISBN)978-91-7790-229-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-12-06, E231, Luleå, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-10-15 Created: 2018-10-12 Last updated: 2018-12-04Bibliographically approved

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Gantasala, SudhakarTabatabaei, NargesCervantes, MichelAidanpää, Jan-Olov

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