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Near-surface soil stabilisation to reduce the frost susceptibility of soft soils
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Mining and Geotechnical Engineering.
2018 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Ytstabilisering av terass för att minska påverkan av frysning (Swedish)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2018.
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71219ISBN: 978-91-7790-230-0 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-231-7 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-71219DiVA, id: diva2:1256089
Presentation
2018-12-11, F 1031, Laboratorievägen 16, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Transport AdministrationAvailable from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Anwendbarkeit oberflächennaher Baugrundstabilisierung mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln in Schweden unter Berücksichtigung des Einflusses von Frost-Tau-Wechseln auf die Tragfähigkeit stabilisierter Tone
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anwendbarkeit oberflächennaher Baugrundstabilisierung mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln in Schweden unter Berücksichtigung des Einflusses von Frost-Tau-Wechseln auf die Tragfähigkeit stabilisierter Tone
2020 (German)In: Bauingenieur: Zeitschrift für das gesamte Bauwesen, ISSN 0005-6650, E-ISSN 1436-4867, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Applicability of near-surface soil improvement with hydraulic binders in Sweden considering the influence of freeze/thaw-cycles on the strength of stabilised clay

Fine-grained soils are often not suitable as subsoil for roads or railways or other large-scale construction because of their frost susceptibility. The engineering properties as well as the frost durability of such soils can be improved by mixing with hydraulic binder, which is used in countries with moderate climate. This paper presents a laboratory study of a Swedish clay soil stabilised with a by-product originated hydraulic binder. The procedure and interpretation of the study considers the country-specific boundary conditions of Sweden. The study contains two different binder contents (4 and 7%) and unstabilised clay, three different curing times (14, 28 and 90 days) before twelve freeze/thaw-cycles as well as a subsequent curing time (28 days). The curing conditions were adopted to cold climate, i. e. +4°C. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) was used as a measure of strength. The results show that this soil gains strength by stabilisation with this binder even at this cold curing temperature and that an increase is still remarkable after freeze/thaw-cycles. The time after freeze/thaw-cycles may allow a continued curing which is indicated by a somewhat higher strength.

Abstract [de]

Aufgrund ihrer Frostempfindlichkeit eignen sich feinkörnige Böden oftmals nicht als Unterbau für Straßen oder Bahntrassen. Die Eigenschaften dieser Böden können durch Stabilisierung mit hydraulischen Bindemitteln deutlich verbessert werden, was in Ländern mit warmgemäßigtem Klima wie Deutschland üblich ist. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag wird eine Laborstudie an einem schwedischen Ton präsentiert, der mit einem Recyclingbindemittel stabilisiert wurde. Die Durchführung und Interpretation der Studie berücksichtigt landestypische Randbedingungen von Schweden. Die Studie umfasst zwei verschiedene Bindemittelgehalte (4 und 7%) sowie unbehandelten Ton, drei verschiedene Erhärtungszeiten (14, 28 und 90 Tage) vor zwölf Frost- Tau-Wechseln sowie eine anschließende Erhärtungszeit. Die Bedingungen während des Erhärtens entsprachen kalten Klimaverhältnissen, d. h. +4°C. Als Maß für die Festigkeitsentwicklung wurde die einaxiale Druckfestigkeit verwendet. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die Festigkeit des Bodens durch Stabilisierung deutlich zunimmt und dass eine Zunahme auch nach Frost-Tau-Wechseln sichtbar bleibt. Die Nacherhärtungszeit könnte eine weitere Erhärtung ermöglichen, was die etwas höheren Festigkeitswerte vermuten lassen.

Keywords
research and development, laboratory study, road, railway, subbase, soil improvement, stabilisation, hydraulic binder, freeze-thaw, Forschung und Entwicklung, Verkehrsbau, Bodenverbesserung, Dauerhaftigkeit
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77434 (URN)000514093800001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2020-01-16 Created: 2020-01-16 Last updated: 2020-03-11
2. Influence of cold curing temperature and freeze–thaw on the UCS of stabilised silty sand
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of cold curing temperature and freeze–thaw on the UCS of stabilised silty sand
(English)In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Ground Improvement, ISSN 1755-0750Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Fine-grained soils are often not suitable as subsoil for roads or railways or other large-scale constructions due to their sensitivity to settlements as well as their frost susceptibility. The engineering properties as well as the frost durability of such soils can be improved by stabilising it with hydraulic binders. Stabilisation is quite often used in countries with moderate climate, but seldom in cold climate. This publication presents a laboratory study of a Swedish silty sand stabilised with Multicem, a cement type containing 50% cement kiln dust. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) was used as a measure of strength. The study investigates different binder contents and different curing times. The UCS was measured before and after 12 freeze–thaw cycles as well as after a subsequent curing time (28 d). The curing conditions were adapted to conditions as given in northern countries – that is, +4°C. The results show that the strength gained by stabilisation is sufficient even at this cold curing temperature. The strength after the freeze–thaw cycles is still significant higher than without stabilisation. The recovering time after the freeze–thaw cycles may allow a continued curing, which is indicated by a higher strength. This remaining strength should become subject for further investigation.

Keywords
natural resources, strength and testing of materials, thermal effects
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77435 (URN)10.1680/jgrim.18.00121 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2020-01-16 Created: 2020-01-16 Last updated: 2020-01-16
3. Terrasstabilisering i nordiskt klimat
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Terrasstabilisering i nordiskt klimat
2018 (Swedish)In: / [ed] Swedish Geotechnical Society, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [sv]

Terrasstabilisering används fortfarande lite i Sverige, trots att idén är gammal och användningen är stor runt om i världen. Osäkerheten om frostpåverkan på stabiliserat jordmaterial är en huvudanledning för detta. Det här forsknings-projektet riktar sig mot att studera frost-stabiliteten av stabiliserad jord i de fall där stabiliseringen har skett med hydrauliska bindemedel, alltså kalk, cement, eller industriella restprodukter med liknande egenskaper, som t.ex. flygaska eller slagg. Resultat från labb-försök visar att en hållfasthetstillväxt sker även vid låga temperaturer och att hållfastheten direkt efter frys-tö-påverkan fortfarande är högre än hos det ursprungliga ostabiliserade materialet. Även en viss efter-härdning verkar ske. Generella slutsatsen är att terrasstabilisering kan löna sig även i nordiskt klimat.

Abstract [en]

Subsoil stabilisation is only seldom applied in Sweden in spite of the fact that the idea is already old and used all over the world. One main reason for this is the uncertainty about the frost-stability of the stabilised soil material. This research project focusses on frost-resistance of soil stabilised with hydraulic binder, meaning lime, cement or industrial residual products, e.g. fly-ash or slag. Lab experiments showed increasing strength even at low temperature. Moreover, the strength directly after freeze-thaw still exceeds the non-stabilised soil. In addition, the experiments indicate a hardening process even after freeze-thaw cycles. The general conclusion is that subsoil stabilisation can be worthwhile even in Nordic climate.

Keywords
subsoil, stabilization, hydraulic binder, clay, freeze/thaw, cold climate, jordstabilisering, hydraulisk bindemedel, lera, frysning/tining, frys/tö
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77436 (URN)
Conference
Grundläggningsdagen 2018, Stockholm, march 15, 2018
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Transport Administration
Available from: 2020-01-16 Created: 2020-01-16 Last updated: 2020-01-17

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