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Treatment oriented waste characterization
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-3755-6419
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

New types of materials and products are developed every day, and subsequently, new types of wastes. At the same time, new regulations are put forth to protect human health and the ecosystems from the negative impacts of wastes. Often, the waste management industry is responsible to deal with these problems, and hence, good knowledge about wastes and their treatment is crucial. Waste is normally characterized in order to determine a treatment; however, this usually implies a known treatment method.

This thesis aims to provide a structured approach about how to describe different treatments, and to provide guidance on how to characterize wastes in a solution oriented manner. A distinction is made between two types of treatments: those based on separation processes and those based on transformation processes, as well as combinations of the two. Separation processes are common in mechanical treatment such as sieving or air-classification. Transformation processes are common in such treatments as shredding, electroporation, radiation treatment, and stabilization. Most treatments consist of both a transformation and a separation process, such as incineration, in which the organic carbon is oxidized (transformed) into CO2,that then is separated from the remaining solids. Other examples of combined processes are composting and anaerobic digestion.

A framework is presented that enables a quantitative description of different waste treatments such as anaerobic digestion and incineration in the same context. All transformation processes take place in an environment that can be described by environmental factors such as temperature, pH, redox, radiation etc. By relating different treatments or observations to each other in an n-dimension matrix, it is possible to not only locate the currently known treatments, but also to locate unexplored areas, i.e. combinations of environmental factors that could be used to treat wastes in new ways.

The addition of the n-dimensional framework to the general characterization model, together with the “top down” strategy for characterization provide valuable insights useful for dealing with new types of wastes in an efficient manner.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019. , p. 23
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71570ISBN: 978-91-7790-268-3 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-269-0 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-71570DiVA, id: diva2:1263096
Presentation
2019-01-29, F231, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental ResearchAvailable from: 2018-11-14 Created: 2018-11-14 Last updated: 2019-07-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The impacts of environments on waste: Part 1: The influence of thermal environments on organic wastes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impacts of environments on waste: Part 1: The influence of thermal environments on organic wastes
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keywords
Thermal treatments, waste treatment
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71560 (URN)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2018-11-13 Created: 2018-11-13 Last updated: 2018-11-14
2. Float-sink separation of construction and demolition waste fines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Float-sink separation of construction and demolition waste fines
2018 (English)In: Detritus, ISSN 2611-4135, Vol. 3, p. 13-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Landfilling and waste incineration are two major waste management options. However, due to their carbon content, some wastes may be unsuitable for these systems. Therefore, methods capable of removing organic carbon from wastes should be identified. One of these wastes is represented by construction and demolition fines. In this paper, we investigate the use of water in separating the waste by density, to verify the suitability of this method in the separation of carbon-containing materials, both in lab and field scale tests. The results obtained show that half of the carbon (measured as volatile solids) can be separated. However, this method fails to reliably produce a sink fraction suitable for landfilling, as it continues to be characterized by an excessively high organic material content.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Padova, Italy: , 2018
Keywords
Construction and demolition waste, Float-sink separation, Density separation, Characterization
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71329 (URN)10.31025/2611-4135/2018.13648 (DOI)000474686200004 ()
Projects
TOOLF
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
3. Characterization and mechanical separation of organic matter in construction and demolition waste fines
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization and mechanical separation of organic matter in construction and demolition waste fines
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Construction and demolition waste (CDW) amounts to a large fraction of produced waste. 37 %-58 % was found to be fines. Wood is a common building material in the Nordic countries, so CDW fines have a high organic content. Typically, CDW fines are landfilled, but due to the high content of total organic carbon (TOC), this is not allowed. In order to investigate potential treatments or uses of these fines, they were characterized, with focus on their organic content. The potential for mechanical separation was tested by sieving and by float-sink separation in water. The organic content is higher in the larger and lighter particles. Mechanical separation by particle size using a 10 mm screen is not likely to consistently produce an under sieve fraction with low TOC content (<10 %). After float-sink separation, the sink fraction still contains 9-42% volatile solids (VS). However, based on tests of biogas potential and respiration activity, the biological activity of the sink fraction can be considered low. This is confirmed by thermogravimetric analysis, showing an organic carbon (OC) content of only 1-2 %. The TOC (measured by CO2 formation) is up to nine times higher than the OC, indicating that the TOC is not a reliable assay to measure organic carbon. Further studies will show if screening up to 10 mm, or screening in combination with density separation can yield a low TOC fraction for landfilling.

Keywords
Construction and demolition waste, Float-sink separation, Density separation, Waste characterization, Thermogravimetric analysis, Organic carbon
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Research subject
Waste Science and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-71561 (URN)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Note

Submitted to Waste Management (ISSN: 0956-053X), 2018-07-06

Available from: 2018-11-13 Created: 2018-11-13 Last updated: 2018-11-14

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Marklund, Erik

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