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Nanoscale electrical properties of heterojunction interfaces for solar cells: modeling and experiments
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics. (Experimental physics)
2018 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

  A numerical model have been developed in order to describe and achieve deeper understanding of experimentally obtained I-V curves from Cu2O/ZnO p-n heterojunctions for potential use as future solar cell material. The model was created using the simulation software COMSOL Multiphysics® and their semiconductor module. To experimentally study the samples two approaches were taken: (1) macro-electrical measurements and (2) local I-V measurements using conductive AFM. The final model is one-dimensional, time dependent and with the ability to study photovoltaic effects of samples with different layer thickness at different voltage ramping speeds and different light irradiance. The model is also able to study the effects of using different contact materials by treating the contacts as ideal Schottky contacts. The dynamic behavior of a Cu_2O/ZnO heterojunction was studied by considering the systems response to a voltage step and the effect of changing the voltage ramping speed. The output from the step response, the current as a function of time, is varying a short time after a step has occurred before settling on to a steady value. The response also shows an overshoot of the current in the direction of the voltage step and the final steady value depends on whether the junction is conducting or not. The effects of this behavior on the shape of the I-V curves are witnessed when studying the different voltage ramping speeds. The voltage is ramped from 2 V to -2 V and back again for different speeds (V/s). The I-V curves have different shapes when sweeping the voltage in different directions and the magnitude increases with increasing speed. The photovoltaic effects were studied by applying different light irradiances. The behavior of the model agrees well with the theory for an ideal diode solar cell. An investigation was done of how the work function of the metal in contact with the Cu_2O affects the shape of the I-V curve under dark and illuminated conditions. The metal work function was changed from 4.5 eV to 6.5 eV in steps of 0.4 eV and does not affect the shape of the I-V curves much in dark after increasing it above 4.5 eV. The effects are more visible under illuminated conditions where a "step"-behavior appears for the lower values of the work function. Only one of the physical samples show a noticeable light effect. The macro-electrical measurement on this sample is compared with simulated results and are in qualitative agreement with each other. The agreement between the local electrical measurements and the simulated results is not as good with the current model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2018. , p. 41
Keywords [en]
solar cell, heterojunction, ZnO, Cu2O, Comsol, atomic force microscopy, I-V characteristics
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72505OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-72505DiVA, id: diva2:1276975
Subject / course
Student thesis, at least 30 credits
Educational program
Engineering Physics and Electrical Engineering, master's level
Presentation
2018-12-18, E130, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 12:31 (English)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-01-23 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-01-23Bibliographically approved

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4243444546474845 of 76
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