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Characterization of Fe-rich skarns and fluorapatite-bearing magnetite occurrences at the Zinkgruvan Zn-Pb-Ag and Cu deposit, Bergslagen, Sweden
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering.
2019 (English)Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
Abstract [en]

Zinkgruvan is a stratiform Zn-Pb-Ag and Cu sulphide deposit hosted by Paleoproterozoic strata in southern Bergslagen, Sweden. The deposit underwent medium-high grade regional metamorphism during the Svecokarelian orogeny, including partial melting of the host succession. Subordinate zones of semi-massive to massive magnetite and Fe-rich skarns occur in marble stratigraphically below the stratiform Zn-Pb-Ag ore but have so far not been described in detail in the scientific literature.

This thesis presents results from detailed geological drill core logging, light optical microscopy (LOM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), which have been integrated with results from electron microprobe analysis (FE-EMPA) and whole-rock lithogeochemical analysis to provide a comprehensive description of the magnetite mineralization. Samples from the formerly mined magnetite deposits Västerby, Garpa and Åmme - distal to Zinkgruvan - have also been studied to allow for a comparison. The combined dataset has been used to 1) discuss the genesis of the magnetite mineralizations, including their relationship to base metal sulphide mineralization, and 2) evaluate potential vectors to Zn-Pb-Ag and Cu mineralization based on variations in the magnetite deposits.

The semi-massive to massive magnetite, adjacent and associated Fe-rich skarn at Zinkgruvan are located in the stratigraphic upper part of the marble host. Three different varieties of magnetite mineralization can be defined: 1) semi-massive to massive magnetite mineralization in marble, 2) magnetite-bearing veins and 3) retrograde magnetite after olivine. Detailed optical microscopy has revealed a positive spatial correlation between aluminium spinel, apatite, magnetite and graphite. Semi-massive to massive magnetite mineralization at Zinkgruvan is enriched in P2O5, ΣREELa-Lu and Mn relative to a carbonate precursor. A positive correlation exists between P2O5 and ∑REELa-Lu, suggesting apatite and monazite are the primary REE-bearing minerals. The fact that the samples with highest P2O5 and ∑REELa-Lu are all Fe-rich rocks suggest the enrichment of the latter is related to the event which formed the Fe mineralization. Magnetite mineralization from the historic iron mines NW of Zinkgruvan share several key attributes with magnetite mineralization at Zinkgruvan. These include: 1) magnetite is the only iron oxide, 2) lithological and mineralogical similarities, including spatial association with marble, 3) equally high whole-rock Fe content, 4) equally high Mn (1-4 wt.% MnO), 5) equally high Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 1.1- 2.8, avg. 1.75), and 6) local presence of sphalerite mineralization. Bending of the tectonic foliation from c. E-W to NW in the western part of Zinkgruvan suggest these magnetite mineralizations may be located along the same trend as those at Zinkgruvan.

The normal calc-silicate mineralogy in Zinkgruvan marble (e.g. diopside, forsterite, phlogopite) can be explained by prograde regional metamorphic reactions between silicates and dolomite or calcite in impure carbonate rocks with a variable content of detrital siliciclastic and volcaniclastic material. However, the stratabound magnetite mineralization and associated Fe-rich skarns cannot be fully accounted for by this model. It is plausible that the Fe-rich skarns can be explained by similar reactions but involving more Fe-rich carbonates (ferrodolomite, ankerite, siderite). In the absence of quartz, siderite is known to thermally decompose into magnetite and graphite at temperatures above 465° C, whereby siderite-rich rocks may have been precursor to the semi-massive to massive magnetite mineralization. A recent genetic model suggests that the ore-forming fluids which formed Zinkgruvan where similar to those which formed McArthur-type SEDEX deposits. The presented results are consistent with this model, since e.g. siderite is a common alteration mineral in alteration envelopes to such deposits. Hence, magnetite mineralization, Zn-Pb-Ag and Cu-ore may all be related to the same pre-metamorphic hydrothermal system.

The current genetic model places the magnetite mineralization at Zinkgruvan proximal to a fossil hydrothermal vent zone (the Burkland discontinuity). It is plausible that the magnetite mineralization mined at surface lay along the northern continuation of the Burkland discontinuity. Based on the assumption that the Burkland Cu-mineralization is most proximal and the old iron mines at Åmme are most distal along this structure, variations in whole-rock lithogeochemistry, mineral chemistry and mineralogy have been used to define nine vectors to economic Zn-Pb-Ag and Cu ore as is mined at Zinkgruvan.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
2019. , p. 92
Keywords [en]
Zinkgruvan, Bergslagen, Magnetite, REE, Broken Hill-type, Skarn, SEDEX
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72704OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-72704DiVA, id: diva2:1282944
External cooperation
Zinkgruvan Mining AB
Subject / course
Student thesis, at least 30 credits
Educational program
Geosciences, master's level (120 credits)
Supervisors
Examiners
Available from: 2019-02-01 Created: 2019-01-27 Last updated: 2019-02-01Bibliographically approved

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