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Use of TEM-EDX for structural formula identification of clay minerals: a case study of Di Linh bentonite, Vietnam
VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi.
Greifswald University, Greifswald, Germany.
Institute of Applied Geosciences, Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany.
VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
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2019 (English)In: Journal of applied crystallography, ISSN 0021-8898, E-ISSN 1600-5767, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 133-147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Transmission electron microscopy linked with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX) was applied to characterize mineralogical signals ofweathering processes in the Di Linh bentonite deposit (Vietnam) and to visualize the effects of Na activation on the smectitic phases. Modelling of X ray diffraction patterns (oriented mount) was applied in order to refine the computed structural formula. X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) methods were also applied to verify the TEM-EDX results. An Excel-based routine has been developed in this research to allow fast computation of structural formulae and classification of the investigated clay particles. This routine supports the acquirement of 100 300 TEM-EDX analyses as a representative set of individual particles for each sample. The Excel-based routine involves end members of different clay mineral groups and interstratifications with two or three members (e.g. illite smectite interstratifications – IS-ml; dioctahedral vermiculite–smectite interstratifications – diVS-ml; and kaolinite–montmorillonite–dioctahedral vermiculite interstratifications – KSV-ml). The routine is now freely available. According to the identification procedure, the <2 mm fraction of the Di Linh bentonite (Vietnam) is composed mainly of K- and charge-deficient illite smectite interstratifications (or diVS-ml): montmorillonite-rich randomly ordered (R0) type and illite-rich regularly ordered (R1) type. Additionally, Fe-poor KSV-ml was identified.Industrial Na activation of the Di Linh bentonite resulted in an increase of theR1 diVS-ml portion and dissolution of a large part of the smectite-rich phases.The TEM-EDX approach also gave analytical proof of a sedimentary processfor Di Linh smectite. The parent muscovite was altered in two different environments: (i) K-leaching and layer-wise alteration into kaolinite (weathering), and (ii) further edge-controlled alteration of mica into lath-like montmorillonite particles associated with a dissolution of kaolinite layers from the former kaolinite–mica intergrowths by heat impact (basalt flow).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Union of Crystallography , 2019. Vol. 52, no 1, p. 133-147
Keywords [en]
clay minerals, Di Linh bentonite, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, structural formulae
National Category
Geotechnical Engineering
Research subject
Soil Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-72770DOI: 10.1107/S1600576718018162OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-72770DiVA, id: diva2:1285170
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-02-06 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-02-02 Created: 2019-02-02 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved

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1819202122232421 of 66
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