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The life safety objective in structural fire safety design
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-0071-6637
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Personsäkerhet vidbrandteknisk dimensionering av bärande konstruktioner (Swedish)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2019. , p. 219
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Building Technologies Infrastructure Engineering
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73663ISBN: 978-91-7790-360-4 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-361-1 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-73663DiVA, id: diva2:1305098
Public defence
2019-06-13, F1031, Luleå, 13:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
SBUF - Sveriges Byggindustriers Utvecklingsfond, 13330ÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development), 14-401Brandforsk, 312-131Available from: 2019-04-16 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-05-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The Life Safety Objective in Performance-Based Design for Structural Fire Safety
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Life Safety Objective in Performance-Based Design for Structural Fire Safety
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Structural stability is not necessarily required for buildings where life safety is the sole structural fire safety objective. However, a structural collapse is only acceptable in an area where lethal fire conditions have developed. Therefore, structural failures due to fire resulting in risks of progressing outside of the area of lethal fire conditions need to be addressed. Thus, a new type of design principles for the life safety objectives is presented here which enables an evaluation of more precise risk assessments and more cost-efficient solutions without compromising human safety.

National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-70093 (URN)
Conference
2nd international conference on structural safety under fire & blast loading, CONFAB 2017, London, 10-12 september 2017
Funder
SBUF - Sveriges Byggindustriers Utvecklingsfond, 13330
Available from: 2018-07-09 Created: 2018-07-09 Last updated: 2019-04-16Bibliographically approved
2. Life safety in single-story steel frame builidngs, Part I - deterministic design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life safety in single-story steel frame builidngs, Part I - deterministic design
2019 (English)In: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, ISSN 2040-2317, E-ISSN 2040-2325Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

This paper discusses fire safety design of single story-, single compartment buildings and evaluates whether time to structural damage is a relevant criterion when lethal fire conditions develop long before any structural fire damage can occur. Current performance-based design practice aims at achieving the life safety objective by preventing structural failure for the entire duration of a natural fire or for a fixed time of standard fire exposure. Prevention of structural fire damage is always relevant for multistory buildings, or buildings with complex geometries as structural fire damage may then threaten occupants and/or firefighters outside the area directly affected by the fire. However, for single-story-, single-compartment buildings, prevention of structural fire damage is less relevant in relation to the life safety objective.

The advantage of the new design philosophy presented in this paper is the possibility to define how the level of structural fire resistance in single-story-, single-compartment buildings can be determined in a consistent way. This level of fire resistance requirement in these buildings differ amongst countries but could be harmonized by accepting of the design philosophy suggested in this paper.

The proposed approach is demonstrated in a design case study of a steel truss in a typical Swedish single-story steel frame building. While not complying with deemed to satisfy fire resistance ratings, it is argued that the proposed design still can fulfill the life safety objective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2019
Keywords
Structural fire safety design, Performance-based design, Fire engineering, Life safety
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Structural Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73434 (URN)10.1108/JSFE-01-2019-0013 (DOI)
Funder
SBUF - Sveriges Byggindustriers Utvecklingsfond, 13330
Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-08-12
3. Life safety in single-story steel frame buildings, Part II - probabilistic design
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life safety in single-story steel frame buildings, Part II - probabilistic design
(English)In: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, ISSN 2040-2317, E-ISSN 2040-2325Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Including consideration to the fire conditions in structural fire safety design enables a nuanced evaluation of the life safety objective in single-story-, single-compartment buildings. This paper investigates the probability of unacceptable consequences from structural fire damage in a typical Scandinavian single-story steel frame building and discusses it in relation to life safety. The investigated building does not meet the safety levels as stipulated by EN 1990 for structural fire damage. However, by including consideration to the fire conditions in the compartment, it is shown that the life safety objective is not compromised by the structural fire damage, i.e. the structure remains intact as long as any individuals/firefighters can survive within the fire area compartment.

This paper is a complement to the paper Life safety in single-story steel frame buildings, Part I – deterministic design by Sandström (2019) considering the same design philosophy but with a deterministic design approach.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73614 (URN)
Funder
SBUF - Sveriges Byggindustriers Utvecklingsfond, 13330
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-08-12
4. Steel truss exposed to localized fires: Experimental report from a large scale experiment with a steel truss exposed to localized fires
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Steel truss exposed to localized fires: Experimental report from a large scale experiment with a steel truss exposed to localized fires
Show others...
2015 (English)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2015. p. 53
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-22393 (URN)2b5d5d0b-2729-4ef2-93dc-f61f2cec67a1 (Local ID)2b5d5d0b-2729-4ef2-93dc-f61f2cec67a1 (Archive number)2b5d5d0b-2729-4ef2-93dc-f61f2cec67a1 (OAI)
Note
Godkänd; 2015; 20151001 (joasan)Available from: 2016-09-29 Created: 2016-09-29 Last updated: 2019-04-16Bibliographically approved
5. Thermal exposure from localized fires to horizontal surfaces below the hot gas layer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal exposure from localized fires to horizontal surfaces below the hot gas layer
2019 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The temperature in the lower chord of steel trusses subjected to localized fires is difficult to estimate as most thermal exposure correlation formulas presented in the literature focus on heating along the ceiling where the temperature is very different from that of the lower chord [1], [2]. At the same time as the upper chord is engulfed in a ceiling jet from a localized fire, the lower chord may be surrounded by air at ambient temperature.Two existing methods by Zhang and Usmani [3] and Guowei et al. [4], [5] along with one new approach for calculating the thermal exposure of the lower chord are presented in this paper and compared to the results from experiments conducted in Trondheim 2015 [6].A new approach presented in this paper is evaluated based on two separate assumptions of the thermal exposure. Outside the plume, the radiative contribution is assumed originating from the plume in the form of a cylinder and inside the plume, the temperature is assumed decreasing according to a Gaussian shape from the central axis temperature to the temperature down to the temperature from the first part of the model at the transition between inside and outside the plume.All models provide good correlation to the experimental data outside the plume perimeter. Inside the plume perimeter, the thermal impact depends to a high degree to the relation between the flame height and the height of the horizontal surface of interest.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2019. p. 24
Series
Research report / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1528
Keywords
Performance-based design, heat transfer, localized fires
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Steel Structures
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73430 (URN)
Funder
Brandforsk, 312-131
Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-05-28
6. Comparing performance-based fire safety design using stochastic modelling to Eurocode partial coefficent method
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing performance-based fire safety design using stochastic modelling to Eurocode partial coefficent method
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In performance based structural fire safety design using the parametric fire curve, Eurocode has adopted a partial coefficient applied only on the fuel load density for calibrating the code to the desired safety level. Probabilistic analyses are presented in this paper to investigate the impact on the reliability due to variation of opening factor, and thermal inertia as well as the ratio between variable and permanent static load. It is shown that the partial coefficient method in Eurocode, with fire exposure expressed via parametric fire curves gives adequate reliability levels with certain margins on the safe side compared to stochastic evaluation based on the same assumptions. This margin is particularly high for load combinations with dominating variable load.

Keywords
Performance-based design, Fire resistance, Reliability anlysis, Monte Carlo simulation
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73611 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Fire and Safety Days (NFSD2018) Conference
Funder
ÅForsk (Ångpanneföreningen's Foundation for Research and Development), 401-14
Available from: 2019-04-12 Created: 2019-04-12 Last updated: 2019-04-16

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