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Bioretention for stormwater quality treatment: Effects of design features and ambient conditions
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Architecture and Water.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Biofilter för dagvattenrening : design och omgivningspåverkan (Swedish)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019.
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73669ISBN: 978-91-7790-362-8 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-363-5 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-73669DiVA, id: diva2:1305134
Public defence
2019-05-29, C305, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-04-16 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-06-05Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. The influence of temperature and salt on metal and sediment removal in stormwater biofilters
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of temperature and salt on metal and sediment removal in stormwater biofilters
2014 (English)In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 69, no 11, p. 2295-2304Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stormwater biofilters are used to treat stormwater runoff. In countries with cold winter climates, biofilters are subject to low temperatures which, in some cases, are combined with potentially high salt concentrations from road de-icing, potentially affecting the biofilter’s performance. Since stormwater biofilters have been developed without consideration of their critical winter use, a laboratory study was carried out to evaluate the performance of stormwater biofilters subjected to low and high temperatures, with and without salt. Both factors and their interaction had a significant effect on outflow concentrations and removal percentages. Salt had a negative impact on outflow concentrations, causing lower removal percentages for (especially dissolved) metals, this impact being most pronounced for Cu and Pb. The unrealistic combination of salt with high temperature seemed to further amplify the negative impacts of salt despite the fact that temperature alone did not cause significant differences in outflow concentrations and removal percentages. Still, biofilters showed the ability to treat stormwater efficiently under the simulated winter conditions; outflow concentrations for total metals as a minimum met the class 4 threshold value defined in the Swedish freshwater quality guidelines, while inflow concentrations clearly exceeded the threshold value for class 5. The relatively coarse filter material (which is recommended to facilitate infiltration during winter) did not seem to exacerbate biofilter performance.

Keywords
Civil engineering and architecture - Water engineering, Samhällsbyggnadsteknik och arkitektur - Vattenteknik
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-32626 (URN)10.2166/wst.2014.161 (DOI)000338991400016 ()24901625 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84902353900 (Scopus ID)72df0a7d-bce6-41e6-9b6c-a3bc844dc4db (Local ID)72df0a7d-bce6-41e6-9b6c-a3bc844dc4db (Archive number)72df0a7d-bce6-41e6-9b6c-a3bc844dc4db (OAI)
Conference
Nordiwa 2013 : 08/10/2013 - 10/10/2013
Note

Validerad;2014;20140409 (laisoe);Konferensartikel i tidskrift

Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
2. Metal uptake in three different plant species used for cold climate biofilter systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Metal uptake in three different plant species used for cold climate biofilter systems
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Stormwater biofilters have been developed without consideration of their cold climate design and performance. Vegetation has been shown to play an important role in biofilter effectiveness. Due to the effect of winter conditions on plants (no/reduced growth, high salinity from road salt), winter-related factors affecting biofilter vegetation, and especially the selection of vegetation for cold climate biofilter systems, need further investigation. The impacts of temperature, salt and the presence of a submerged zone on Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn uptake in three native wet/drought tolerant plant types, Juncus conglomeratus, Phalaris arundinacea and Carex panacea, were thus examined in 24 biofilter mesocosms under controlled laboratory conditions. The shoots of all three plant species accumulated higher metal concentrations than the roots. Generally, a higher metal uptake was observed under cold conditions. No significant difference in metal uptake was found between different biofilter combinations, indicating that these three plant species were not particularly affected by different temperatures and/or the presence/absence of salt and a submerged zone. The results of this study indicate the potential to use the investigated plant species for targeted cold climate biofilter design.

National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-39039 (URN)d9fad5b5-1308-47aa-aed5-da037c640b77 (Local ID)d9fad5b5-1308-47aa-aed5-da037c640b77 (Archive number)d9fad5b5-1308-47aa-aed5-da037c640b77 (OAI)
Conference
International Conference on Urban Drainage : 07/09/2014 - 12/09/2014
Note
Godkänd; 2014; 20141006 (laisoe)Available from: 2016-10-03 Created: 2016-10-03 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
3. Dissolved metal adsorption capacities and fractionation in filter materials for use in stormwater bioretention facilities
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dissolved metal adsorption capacities and fractionation in filter materials for use in stormwater bioretention facilities
2019 (English)In: Water Research X, ISSN 2589-9147, Vol. 4, article id 100032Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The dissolved metal adsorption and association was determined for ten different filter materials recommended and/or implemented in bioretention facilities. Batch adsorption and batch kinetic experiments were performed at lab-scale using both single and multi-metal solutions. Metal strengths and association were determined by sequential extraction analysis. All materials adsorbed metals and 90% of adsorption occurred within 1 h. However, as metal solutions became more complex, adsorption behavior changed. Generally, filter materials classified as sand with a naturally high pH, relatively low organic matter (OM) content and large specific surface area seem to be good choices for removing dissolved metals. Additionally, a chalk additive might improve metal adsorption whereas biochar did not significantly improve metal retention and may be an unwanted (due to degradation over time) extra source of OM. Regardless of filter material, metals primarily adsorbed to the exchangeable form which indicates that metal adsorption might not be permanent, but rather substantially reversible in some cases. More research is needed to assess whether dissolved metals adsorbed in filter materials of bioretention systems pose a delayed threat instead of an immediate threat. Finally, the authors strongly recommend filter materials intended for stormwater bioretention facilities to be tested prior to implementation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Filter material, Biofilter, Heavy metals, Metal fractionation, Filter media
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73666 (URN)10.1016/j.wroa.2019.100032 (DOI)000485181300004 ()31334495 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065547443 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-06-25 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-10-01Bibliographically approved
4. Nitrogen removal in stormwater bioretention facilities: effect of drying, temperature and submerged zone
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nitrogen removal in stormwater bioretention facilities: effect of drying, temperature and submerged zone
(English)In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73667 (URN)
Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-04-15
5. Do salt and low temperature impair metal treatment in stormwater bioretention cells with or without a submerged zone?
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do salt and low temperature impair metal treatment in stormwater bioretention cells with or without a submerged zone?
2017 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 579, p. 1588-1599Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although seasonal temperature changes and (road) salt in winter and/or coastal stormwater runoff might interfere with the metal treatment performance of stormwater bioretention cells, no previous study has evaluated the effect of these factors and their interactions under controlled conditions. In this 18 week long study 24 well established pilot-scale bioretention columns were employed to evaluate the individual and combined effect(s) of low/high temperature, salt and presence of a submerged zone with an embedded carbon source on metal removal using a three factor, two-level full factorial experimental design. In most instances, the three factors significantly influenced the metal outflow concentrations and thus the treatment performance; the effect of temperature depended on the metal in question, salt had an overall negative effect and the submerged zone with carbon source had an overall positive effect. Despite these statistically significant effects, the discharge water quality was generally markedly improved. However, leaching of dissolved Cu and Pb did occur, mainly from bioretention cells dosed with salt-containing stormwater. The highest concentrations of metals were captured in the top layer of the filter material and were not significantly affected by the three factors studied. Overall, the results confirmed that bioretention provides a functioning stormwater treatment option in areas experiencing winter conditions (road salt, low temperatures) or coastal regions (salt-laden stormwater). However, validation of these results in the field is recommended, especially focusing on dissolved metal removal, which may be critically affected under certain conditions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-61078 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.179 (DOI)000393320400058 ()27919558 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85007454220 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad; 2017; Nivå 2; 2017-03-03 (andbra)

Available from: 2016-12-15 Created: 2016-12-15 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
6. Reduction of Escherichia coliEnterococcus faecalisand Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention: Effect of drying, temperature and submerged zone
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reduction of Escherichia coliEnterococcus faecalisand Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention: Effect of drying, temperature and submerged zone
2019 (English)In: Journal of Hydrology X, ISSN 2589-9155, Vol. 3, article id 100025Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impact of drying and temperature on the reduction of Escherichia coliEnterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in stormwater bioretention systems with and without a submerged zone was assessed using 16 pilot-scale bioretention columns under controlled laboratory conditions. The experimental design enabled analysis of possible interactions between the factors. First outflow and event-based samples were collected. Outflow concentrations were independent of inflow concentrations and hence controlled by internal processes. Overall TSS removal was high but sensitive to bacterial synthesis. Event-based samples had significantly higher bacteria concentrations than first outflow samples, suggesting that remaining/surviving bacteria in the bioretention cells have little effect on initial peak outflow concentrations. The effect of temperature varied between bacterial species and sample types. Long dry periods seemed beneficial for bacteria reduction, but outflow bacteria concentrations peaked during the second watering after long dry periods. Submerged zones significantly reduced bacteria outflow concentrations. However, sudden temperature increases caused bioretention cells with a submerged zone to produce significantly higher bacteria outflow concentrations than before the temperature increase, which was not the case for standard cells. Bioretention cells with submerged zones may thus be poor choices for reducing bacterial concentrations in stormwater runoff in areas experiencing winter conditions. Finally, our results suggest that adsorption (e.g. further enhanced by biofilm formation) is the major mechanism governing bacteria reduction in bioretention systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Bacteria, Submerged zone, Stormwater, Bioretention, Winter performance, Wet and dry periods
National Category
Water Engineering
Research subject
Urban Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73082 (URN)10.1016/j.hydroa.2019.100025 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-03-01 Created: 2019-03-01 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved

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  • Other locale
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