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Development of Constituents for Multi-functional Composites Reinforced with Cellulosic Fibers
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Material Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5550-2962
2019 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)Alternative title
Utveckling av beståndsdelar för multifunktionella kompositer förstärkta med cellulosafibrer (Swedish)
Abstract [en]

Bio-basedcomposites are being increasingly used in applications where weight saving,and environmental friendliness is as important as structural performance. Obviously, bio-based materials have their limitations regarding durability and stability of the properties,but their potential in use for advanced applications can be expanded if they were functionalized and considered beyond their structural performance.

Multifunctionalityincomposites can be achieved by modifyingeither of the composite constituents at different levelsso that they can perform energy-associated roles besides their structural reinforcement in the system. For the fibers, this can be done at the microscale by altering theirmicrostructure during spinning process or by applying functional coatings. As for the matrix, it is usually done by incorporating additives that can impart the required characteristics to the matrix. The nano-sized additives that mightbe considered for this objective are graphene and carbon nano-tubes. A big challenge with such materials is the difficulty to reachthe dispersionstate necessary for formation ofstable network to overcome the percolation threshold for conductivity. However, once the network is formed, the composite can have improved mechanical performance together with one or more of the added functionalities such as barrier capabilities,thermal and/or electrical conductivities or electromagnetic interference ability.

Enormous work has been done to achieve the functionality incomposites produced with special care in laboratories. However, when it comes to mass production, it is both cost and energy inefficient to use tedious,complex methods for the manufacturing. Hence there is a need to investigate the potential of using scalable and industrial-relevant techniques and materials with acceptable compromise between cost and properties.

The work presented in this thesis is performedwithin two projects aiming to achieve functional composites based on natural and man-made cellulosic fibers suitable for industrial upscaling. Conductive Regenerated Cellulose Fibers (RCFs) were produced by coating them with copper by electroless coating process using commercial materials. On the other hand, commercial masterbatches based on Graphene Nano-Platelets (GNPs) were used to produce wood polymer composites (WPC) with added multifunctionality by melt extrusion process. The process is one of the conventional methods used inpolymerproductionand needsno modifications for processingfunctional composites. Both materials together can be used to produce hybrid functional composites.

The incorporation of the GNP into HDPE has resulted in improvement in the mechanical propertiesof polymer as well as composite reinforced with wood fibers. Stiffness has increased to a large extent while effect on the strength was less pronounced(>100% and 18% for stiffness and strength at 15%GNP loading). The enhancement of thermal conductivityat higher graphene loadingswas also observed. Moreover, time-dependent response of the polymer has also been affected and the addition of GNP has resulted in reduced viscoplastic strains and improved creep behavior.

The copper-coated cellulose fibers showed a significant increasein electrical conductivity(<1Ω/50mm of coated samples) and a potential in use as sensor materials. However, these results come with the cost of reduction in mechanical properties of fibers (10% and 70% for tensile stiffness and strength, respectively) due to theeffect ofchemicals involved in the process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2019.
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Keywords [en]
cellulose fibers, multi-functional, composites, nano-reinforcement, thermoplastics, development
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Polymeric Composite Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73736ISBN: 978-91-7790-372-7 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-373-4 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-73736DiVA, id: diva2:1306635
Presentation
2019-06-05, E231, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-04-25 Created: 2019-04-24 Last updated: 2023-03-16Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Conductive Regenerated Cellulose Fibers by Electroless Plating
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conductive Regenerated Cellulose Fibers by Electroless Plating
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2019 (English)In: Fibers, ISSN 2079-6439, Vol. 7, no 5, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Continuous metallized regenerated cellulose fibers for advanced applications (e.g. multi-functional composites) are produced by electroless copper plating. Copper is successfully deposited on the surface of cellulose fibers using commercial cyanide-free electroless copper plating package commonly available for manufacturing of printed wiring boards. The deposited copper is found to enhance the thermal stability, electrical conductivity and resistance to moisture uptake of the fibers. On the other hand, involved chemistry results in altering the molecular structure of the fibers as is indicated by the degradation of their mechanical performance (tensile strength and modulus).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
cellulose fibers, functionalization, copper coating, electroless plating, continuous fibers
National Category
Materials Engineering Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Polymeric Composite Materials; Industrial Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73739 (URN)10.3390/fib7050038 (DOI)000470958000002 ()2-s2.0-85070398485 (Scopus ID)
Funder
The Swedish Foundation for International Cooperation in Research and Higher Education (STINT), IB2017-7389
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-07-01 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-04-24 Created: 2019-04-24 Last updated: 2022-04-08Bibliographically approved
2. Characterization of Wood and Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Reinforced Polymer Composites
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Wood and Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Reinforced Polymer Composites
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2020 (English)In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 2089Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the utilization of commercial masterbatches of graphene nanoplatelets to improve the properties of neat polymer and wood fiber composites manufactured by conventional processing methods. The effect of aspect ratio of the graphene platelets (represented by the different number of layers in the nanoplatelet) on the properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is discussed. The composites were characterized for their mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, impact) and physical characteristics (morphology, crystallization, and thermal stability). The effect of the addition of nanoplatelets on the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the reinforced polymer with different contents of reinforcement was also investigated. In general, the mechanical performance of the polymer was enhanced at the presence of either of the reinforcements (graphene or wood fiber). The improvement in mechanical properties of the nanocomposite was notable considering that no compatibilizer was used in the manufacturing. The use of a masterbatch can promote utilization of nano-modified polymer composites on an industrial scale without modification of the currently employed processing methods and facilities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2020
Keywords
graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs), nanocomposites masterbatch, wood polymer composites (WPC), energy transport, high density polyethylene (HDPE)
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Research subject
Polymeric Composite Materials; Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73740 (URN)10.3390/ma13092089 (DOI)000535941100083 ()32369956 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85085253513 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg NordNorrbotten County Council
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-05-12 (alebob)

Available from: 2019-04-24 Created: 2019-04-24 Last updated: 2024-07-04Bibliographically approved
3. Time‐dependent properties of graphene nanoplatelets reinforced high‐density polyethylene
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time‐dependent properties of graphene nanoplatelets reinforced high‐density polyethylene
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2021 (English)In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 138, no 30, article id 50783Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The deformation of polymers at constant applied stress is one of their major drawbacks, limiting their use in advanced applications. The study of this property using classical techniques requires extensive testing over long periods of time. It is well known that reinforced polymers show improved behavior over time compared to their neat counterparts. In this study, the effect of adding different amounts of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the time‐dependent properties of high‐density polyethylene (HDPE) is investigated using short‐term creep tests and load/unload recovery tests. The results are discussed in terms of the test profile and the influence of loading history. Viscoplasticity/viscoelasticity analysis is performed using Zapas model and by comparing creep, creep compliance and pure viscoelasticity curves. The results show that the reinforcement of 15 wt% GNP have the most significant effect on the time‐dependent behavior, reducing the strain by more than 50%. The creep compliance curves show that nano‐reinforced HDPE behaves nonlinearly viscoelastically even at very low stresses. In addition to demonstrating the effect of nano‐reinforcement, the discussion of the results concludes that the influence of loading history can be quite significant and should not be neglected in the design and evaluation of material behavior.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2021
Keywords
graphene and fullerenes, mechanical properties, theory and modeling, thermoplastics, viscosity and viscoelasticity
National Category
Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Polymeric Composite Materials; Machine Elements
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83561 (URN)10.1002/app.50783 (DOI)000636776700001 ()2-s2.0-85103565338 (Scopus ID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 777810Interreg NordLuleå University of Technology
Note

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-06-10 (alebob);

An image from this article was selected for the cover image of the issue, it can be found here: https://doi.org/10.1002/app.50972

This article has previously appeared as a manuscript in a thesis.

Available from: 2021-04-09 Created: 2021-04-09 Last updated: 2023-03-16Bibliographically approved

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Al-Maqdasi, Zainab

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