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Laser metal deposition of copper on diverse metals using green laser sources
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-7213-0002
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling. Fraunhofer IWS, Winterbergstrasse 28, 01277, Dresden, Germany.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.ORCID-id: 0000-0003-0194-9018
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-3569-6795
2020 (engelsk)Inngår i: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 107, nr 3-4, s. 1559-1568Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Green laser sources are advantageous in the processing of copper due to the increase of absorptivity compared with more commonly available infrared lasers. Laser metal deposition of copper with a green laser onto various substrate metals namely copper, aluminium, steel and titanium alloy was carried out and observed through high-speed imaging. The effects of process parameters such as laser power, cladding speed and powder feed rate, and material attributes such as absorptivity, surface conditions and thermal conductivity are tied together to explain the size and geometry of the melt pool as well as the fraction of the power used for melting material. The copper substrate has the smallest melt pool with a high angle, followed by aluminium, steel and titanium alloy. The incorporation times for powder grains in the melt pools vary based on the substrate materials. Its dependency on material properties, including surface tension forces, melting temperatures and material density, is discussed. Oxide skins present on melt pools can affect powder incorporation, most significantly on the aluminium substrate. The lower limits of the fraction of power irradiated on the surface used purely for melting were calculated to be 0.73%, 2.94%, 5.95% and 9.78% for the copper, aluminium, steel and titanium alloy substrates, respectively, showing a strong dependence on thermal conductivity of the substrate material. For a copper wall built, the fraction was 2.66%, much higher than a single clad on a copper substrate, due to reduced workpiece heating. The results of this paper can be transferred to other metals with low absorptivity such as gold.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Springer, 2020. Vol. 107, nr 3-4, s. 1559-1568
Emneord [en]
Copper, Laser Metal Deposition, Additive Manufacturing, High Speed Imaging, Multi-material, Green 515 nm laser, Directed Energy Deposition, Absorptivity, Powder grain incorporation, LMD, DED
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Produktionsutveckling
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73753DOI: 10.1007/s00170-020-05117-zISI: 000521121600003Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85081542493OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-73753DiVA, id: diva2:1306747
Merknad

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-04-23 (johcin)

Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-24 Laget: 2019-04-24 Sist oppdatert: 2021-04-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Inngår i avhandling
1. Phenomena in material addition to laser generated melt pools
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Phenomena in material addition to laser generated melt pools
2019 (engelsk)Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2019
Serie
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
Emneord
laser metal deposition, additive manufacturing, laser welding, multi-material, high speed imaging, powder incorporation, off-axis wire feed, streak imaging, laser cladding, absorptivity
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Produktionsutveckling
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-73754 (URN)978-91-7790-378-9 (ISBN)978-91-7790-379-6 (ISBN)
Presentation
2019-06-20, E632, lulea tekniska universitet, Lulea, 09:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-25 Laget: 2019-04-24 Sist oppdatert: 2019-06-05bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Phenomena in laser based material deposition
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Phenomena in laser based material deposition
2021 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Alternativ tittel[sv]
Fenomen i laserbaserad materialdeponering
Abstract [en]

This thesis is regarding the use of a laser beam to deposit material. Phenomena in two processes, laser beam welding with filler wire and blown powder directed energy deposition (DED) also known as laser metal deposition (LMD)1, are discussed. High-speed imaging is used as a central tool, supported by cross-sectional macrographs, surface images, X-ray images, computed tomography scans and quantitative analysis of the acquired results to observe many phenomena. Several results generated could be used in the manufacturing industry.

A novel concept of feeding the filler wire off-axis to the joint in laser beam welding is presented. The formation of defects called undercuts depended mainly on the stability of the wire feed and irregular melting of its tip. Process parameters played a key role in the robustness of the process, with higher welding speeds and laser powers increasing the chance for formation of defects.

Powder catchment in DED, and the various influencing factors are discussed. The position of initial interaction between powder grains and the melt pool plays an important role in defining incorporation behaviour. Powder grains can float on the surface of melt pool and travel along the direction of surface tension driven melt flows before fully incorporating. In high-deposition rate DED, an island of unmelted powder can form in the melt pool, depending on the laser beam shape and powder feeding configuration used. This island could lead to formation of spatter from the melt pool and porosity in resulting clads. Solid oxide skins present on the melt pool in low temperature areas can act like a barrier preventing complete incorporation of powder grains or possibly causing localised boiling, forming spatter.

For the first time, near-unprocessed material was used as feedstock in the DED process. A single large melt pool is formed in the relatively calm process, and phenomena like cloud formation while feeding of material and spatter were observed. Single and multi-layered deposition resulted in porous tracks and delamination from the substrate. While the process is not industrially useable in its current state, it is a step towards processing cheap unprocessed material with a laser beam to manufacture low cost parts or for in-situ reduction. 

The roles of material composition and surface conditions of the substrate in DED are also presented. Both, the composition and surface condition affect the absorption of the laser radiation. Material composition influences the time taken for incorporation of powder grains. The size of the melt pool and dilution depends on the thermal conductivity of the substrate material. Surfaces that are rough or coated with (several sorts of) paint produce wider tracks, with better wetting angles as compared to milled or ground surfaces. Coatings like paints or cold-galvanising primers do not negatively affect the process. Deposition directly on rough or painted surfaces could significantly reduce processing time and the resources needed for cleaning before cladding or repair processes. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Luleå University of Technology, 2021
Serie
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Produktionsutveckling
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83613 (URN)978-91-7790-819-7 (ISBN)978-91-7790-820-3 (ISBN)
Disputas
2021-06-10, A109, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 09:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-04-14 Laget: 2021-04-13 Sist oppdatert: 2021-11-12bibliografisk kontrollert

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Prasad, Himani SivaBrueckner, FrankVolpp, JoergKaplan, Alexander F. H.

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