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Application of GRAS Compounds for the Control of Mould Growth on Scots Pine Sapwood Surfaces: Multivariate Modelling of Mould Grade
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7864-8091
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering. innoReNew, Slovenia.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Wood Science and Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3544-8716
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Skellefteå, Sweden.
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2019 (English)In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 10, no 9, article id 714Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research Highlights: In this study, the Generally Recognised as Safe (GRAS) compounds were applied in order to study mould-fungi growth on dried Scots pine sapwood. Background and Objectives: The transition to the use of more sustainable wood-material may be possible by applying GRAS compounds that can control and prevent contamination by primary colonising mould fungi. Materials and Methods: Kiln-dried sawn timber was treated with three different GRAS compounds, and different fungal inoculation methods applied in order to investigate differences in the development of fungal communities. Results: Substances based on potassium silicate significantly reduced fungal growth and mould contamination on the studied wood surfaces. By combining wood-surface treatments with GRAS compounds, fungal-area size as predictors and mould grade as response, a partial least squares (PLS) model that makes it possible to predict mould grade on wood surfaces was developed. The PLS model is a key component in the development of a smart grading-systems equipped by e.g. high-speed digital cameras for the early detection of fungal attack on wood surfaces in different applications. However, the measurements based on chemical characterisation should be the next step to take in order significantly to enhance the model and increase the range of robust applications. In the current study, a multivariate model describing the influence of each fungal-covering area on mould grade was presented for the first time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019. Vol. 10, no 9, article id 714
Keywords [en]
bacteria, potassium silicate, N-Alkylbensyldimethylammonium chloride, wood, fungi, mould area, PLS modeling
National Category
Wood Science Other Mechanical Engineering
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75696DOI: 10.3390/f10090714ISI: 000487978700070Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85072556439OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-75696DiVA, id: diva2:1346007
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-08-27 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-26 Created: 2019-08-26 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Effectiveness and Evaluation of Wood Protection against Biological Deterioration Caused by Filamentous Fungi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effectiveness and Evaluation of Wood Protection against Biological Deterioration Caused by Filamentous Fungi
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Developing a holistic understanding of the biological deterioration of wooden material by fungi in the laboratory and outdoor conditions requires the development of new assessment procedures and tools that allow describing the process with maximum precision and accuracy. Environmental biodeterioration is a complex process including a combination of physical, chemical and biological changes, with many uncertainties limiting the predictability and effectiveness of selected preservatives after laboratory tests. Therefore, in the current thesis, the investigation of the effectiveness of selected wood process parameters and protection systems against fungal growth and evaluation of the applicability of near-infrared spectroscopy for wooden surfaces assessment under fungal attack were accomplished.  The mould attack on copper impregnated Scots pine sapwood regulated to a greater extent by planing depth than by the infection method. Air-borne contaminants can heavily occupy the unplaned surfaces, but the extent of such occupation could be reduced with planing and impregnation solutions. Despite the vulnerability of the differently planed and copper-impregnated wood towards mould fungi, mass loss of that wood degraded by white-rot Trametes versicolor was less than 5%. The distribution, quantity, and nature of lipophilic substances beneath the surface in the air- and kiln-dried Scots pine sapwood boards significantly influenced mould fungi attack. It was found that the concentration of total extractives was significantly higher in kiln-dried than in air-dried samples and was higher close to the surface than in the layers beneath. During kiln-drying, a migration front is created at a depth of 0.25 mm with a thickness of about 0.5 mm. The evidence from the previous study is committed to understanding the influence of extractives and other migrating compounds on the unplanned surface and, consequently, on mould growth on that surface of Scots pine sapwood subjected to air and kiln drying. Therefore, a multivariate regression model was developed.  The thermal modification at different temperatures of exotic African wood influenced the chemistry. Iroko wood demonstrated stabilisation of pH and different patterns of chemical changes compared to padouk.  The open process of wood treatment like heating-and-cooling (i.e. fully soaking heated wood in cold liquor allowing the liquor to penetrate wood partially) can improve wood performance by developing a protective layer beneath the surface on heat-induced curing. However, the applied methacrylic resin demonstrated effectiveness during laboratory testing for biodeterioration but did not perform efficiently during outdoor tests.  The test of available commercially of generally recognised as safe (GRAS) compounds and biocidal treatment in laboratory conditions revealed a moderate inhibition effect on protection against biodeterioration.  Hyperspectral imaging in the NIR region could be applied to classify thermally modified wood but not for air/kiln-dried Scots pine wood. The use of a portable microNIR spectrometer efficiently demonstrated the separation of no mould and mould specimens in laboratory tests of Scots pine and allowed classifying boards treated with commercial biocides after outdoor weathering. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2021
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Wood Science
Research subject
Wood Science and Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87553 (URN)978-91-7790-960-6 (ISBN)978-91-7790-961-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-12-17, A193, Skelleftea, 00:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-10-19 Created: 2021-10-19 Last updated: 2021-11-26Bibliographically approved

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Myronycheva, OlenaSehlstedt-Persson, MargotKarlsson, OlovSandberg, Dick

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