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Modeling and Simulation of Weld Hot Cracking
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Mechanics of Solid Materials.
2019 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Several alloy systems are susceptible to weld hot cracking. Weld hot cracking occurs by fracture of liquid films, normally grain boundary liquid films, at the late stage of the solidification of the weld. The cracks can be small and therefore difficult to detect by nondestructive test methods. If hot cracks are not repaired, they can act as sites for initiation of fatigue and stress corrosion cracking, which in turn can lead to catastrophic failure in critical applications such as aerospace engines and nuclear power plants. Therefore, it is of highest importance to design weld processes so that hot cracking can be avoided. Here, numerical simulation can be a powerful tool for optimizing weld speed, heat input, weld path geometry, weld path sequences, weld fixturing, etc., such that the risk for hot cracking can be minimized. In this thesis, we propose a modeling approach for simulating weld hot cracking in sheet metals with low welding speeds and fully penetrating welds. These conditions are assumed to give rise to isolated grain boundary liquid films (GBLFs) whose crack susceptibility can be analyzed using one-dimensional models. The work is divided into four journal papers. The three first papers treat hot cracking that occurs in the fusion zone of the weld while the last paper treats hot cracking in the partially melted zone of the weld. The main content of the four papers are summarized below. In paper A, a pore-based crack criterion for hot cracking has been developed. This criterion states that cracking occurs in a GBLF if the liquid pressure in the film goes below a fracture pressure. The fracture pressure is determined from a pore model as the liquid pressure that is required to balance the surface tension of an axisymmetric pore in a liquid film located between two parallel plates at a given critical pore radius. The fracture pressure depends on the surface tension, the spacing between the parallel plates and the gas concentration in the liquid. In order to evaluate the above pore-based crack criterion in a GBLF the liquid pressure in the film most be known. In paper B, a one-dimensional GBLF pressure model for a columnar dendritic microstructure has been developed. This model is based on a combination of Poiseuille parallel plate flow and Darcy porous flow. Flow induced by mechanical straining of the GBLF is accounted for by a macroscopic mechanical strain field that is localized to the GBLF by a temperature dependent length scale. In paper C, a computational welding mechanics model for a Varestraint test is developed. The model is used to calibrate the crack criterion in paper A and the pressure model in paper B. It is then used to test the crack criterion in Varestraint tests with different augmented strains. Calculated crack locations, orientations, and widths are shown to correlate well to the experimental Varestraint tests. vii Finally, in paper D, a segregation model for predicting the thickness of eutectic bands has been developed. The thickness of eutectic bands affects the degree of liquation in partially melted zone, and therefore is an important factor for hot cracking in this region of the weld.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2019.
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Material Mechanics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76425ISBN: 978-91-7790-476-2 (print)ISBN: 978-91-7790-477-9 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-76425DiVA, id: diva2:1361955
Public defence
2019-12-12, E246, Luleå, 09:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2019-10-17 Created: 2019-10-17 Last updated: 2019-12-03Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Modeling and simulation of weld solidification cracking part I: A pore-based crack criterion
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and simulation of weld solidification cracking part I: A pore-based crack criterion
2019 (English)In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 1489-1502Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several advanced alloy systems are susceptible to weld solidification cracking. One example is nickel-based superalloys, which are commonly used in critical applications such as aerospace engines and nuclear power plants. Weld solidification cracking is often expensive to repair and, if not repaired, can lead to catastrophic failure. This study, presented in three papers, presents an approach for simulating weld solidification cracking applicable to large-scale components. The results from finite element simulation of welding are post-processed and combined with models of metallurgy, as well as the behavior of the liquid film between the grain boundaries, in order to estimate the risk of crack initiation. The first paper in this study describes the crack criterion for crack initiation in a grain boundary liquid film. The second paper describes the model for computing the pressure and the thickness of the grain boundary liquid film, which are required to evaluate the crack criterion in paper 1. The third and final paper describes the application of the model to Varestraint tests of alloy 718. The derived model can fairly well predict crack locations, crack orientations, and crack widths for the Varestraint tests. The importance of liquid permeability and strain localization for the predicted crack susceptibility in Varestraint tests is shown.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Solidification cracking, Hot cracking, Varestraint testing, Computational welding mechanics, Alloy 718
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Material Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75660 (URN)10.1007/s40194-019-00760-x (DOI)000482459300029 ()2-s2.0-85068801005 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-08-22 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-22 Created: 2019-08-22 Last updated: 2019-10-17Bibliographically approved
2. Modeling and simulation of weld solidification cracking part II: A model for estimation of grain boundary liquid pressure in a columnar dendritic microstructure
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and simulation of weld solidification cracking part II: A model for estimation of grain boundary liquid pressure in a columnar dendritic microstructure
2019 (English)In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 63, no 5, p. 1503-1519Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several advanced alloy systems are susceptible to weld solidification cracking. One example is nickel-based superalloys, which are commonly used in critical applications such as aerospace engines and nuclear power plants. Weld solidification cracking is often expensive to repair, and if not repaired, can lead to catastrophic failure. This study, presented in three papers, presents an approach for simulating weld solidification cracking applicable to large-scale components. The results from finite element simulation of welding are post-processed and combined with models of metallurgy, as well as the behavior of the liquid film between the grain boundaries, in order to estimate the risk of crack initiation. The first paper in this study describes the crack criterion for crack initiation in a grain boundary liquid film. The second paper describes the model for computing the pressure and the thickness of the grain boundary liquid film, which are required to evaluate the crack criterion in paper 1. The third and final paper describes the application of the model to Varestraint tests of Alloy 718. The derived model can fairly well predict crack locations, crack orientations, and crack widths for the Varestraint tests. The importance of liquid permeability and strain localization for the predicted crack susceptibility in Varestraint tests is shown.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Solidification cracking, Hot cracking, Varestraint testing, Computational welding mechanics, Alloy 718
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Material Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-75653 (URN)10.1007/s40194-019-00761-w (DOI)000482459300030 ()2-s2.0-85068150806 (Scopus ID)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-08-22 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-08-22 Created: 2019-08-22 Last updated: 2019-10-17Bibliographically approved
3. Modeling and simulation of weld solidification cracking part III: Simulation of solidification cracking in Varestraint tests of alloy 718
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling and simulation of weld solidification cracking part III: Simulation of solidification cracking in Varestraint tests of alloy 718
2019 (English)In: Welding in the World, ISSN 0043-2288, E-ISSN 1878-6669, Vol. 63, no 6, p. 1883-1901Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several advanced alloy systems are susceptible to weld solidification cracking. One example is nickel-based superalloys, which are commonly used in critical applications such as aerospace engines and nuclear power plants. Weld solidification cracking is often expensive to repair, and if not repaired, can lead to catastrophic failure. This study, presented in three papers, presents an approach for simulating weld solidification cracking applicable to large-scale components. The results from finite element simulation of welding are post-processed and combined with models of metallurgy, as well as the behavior of the liquid film between the grain boundaries, in order to estimate the risk of crack initiation. The first paper in this study describes the crack criterion for crack initiation in a grain boundary liquid film. The second paper describes the model required to compute the pressure and thickness of the liquid film required in the crack criterion. The third and final paper describes the application of the model to Varestraint tests of alloy 718. The derived model can fairly well predict crack locations, crack orientations, and crack widths for the Varestraint tests. The importance of liquid permeability and strain localization for the predicted crack susceptibility in Varestraint tests is shown.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Solidification cracking, Hot cracking, Varestraint testing, Computational welding mechanics, Alloy 718
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Material Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76421 (URN)10.1007/s40194-019-00784-3 (DOI)
Note

Validerad;2019;Nivå 2;2019-12-06 (johcin)

Available from: 2019-10-17 Created: 2019-10-17 Last updated: 2019-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. A Numerical Model for Simulating the Effect of Strain Rate on Eutectic Band Thickness
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Numerical Model for Simulating the Effect of Strain Rate on Eutectic Band Thickness
Show others...
(English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Research subject
Material Mechanics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-76423 (URN)
Available from: 2019-10-17 Created: 2019-10-17 Last updated: 2019-10-17

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