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Adoption Barriers of IoT in Large Scale Pilots
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Digitala tjänster och system. School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-5286-4850
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Digitala tjänster och system.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-5637-9572
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Digitala tjänster och system.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-8693-2295
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för system- och rymdteknik, Digitala tjänster och system.ORCID-id: 0000-0001-9468-6821
2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: Information, E-ISSN 2078-2489, Vol. 11, nr 23, s. 1-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The pervasive connectivity of devices enabled by Internet of Things (IoT) technologies is leading the way in various innovative services and applications. This increasing connectivity comes with its own complexity. Thus, large scale pilots (LSPs) are designed to develop, test and use IoT innovations in various domains in conditions very similar to their operational scalable setting. One of the key challenges facing the diffusion of such innovations within the course of an LSP is understanding the conditions in which their respective users decide to adopt them (or not). Accordingly, in this study we explore IoT adoption barriers in four LSPs in Europe from the following domains: smart cities, autonomous driving, wearables and smart agriculture and farming. By applying Roger’s Diffusion of Innovation as a theoretical lens and using empirical data from workshops and expert interviews, we identify a set of common and domain specific adoption barriers. Our results reveal that trust, cost, perceived value, privacy and security are common concerns, yet shape differently across domains. In order to overcome various barriers, the relative advantage or value of using the innovation needs to be clearly communicated and related to the users’ situational use; while this value can be economic in some domains, it is more hedonic in others. LSPs were particularly challenged in applying established strategies to overcome some of those barriers (e.g., co-creation with end-users) due to the immaturity of the technology as well as the scale of pilots. Accordingly, we reflect on the theoretical choice in the discussion as well as the implications of this study on research and practice. We conclude with providing practical recommendations to LSPs and avenues for future research

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
MDPI, 2020. Vol. 11, nr 23, s. 1-23
Nyckelord [en]
internet of things, adoption, end-user, innovation, barrier, large scale pilot
Nationell ämneskategori
Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik med samhällsvetenskaplig inriktning
Forskningsämne
Informationssystem
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-77357DOI: 10.3390/info11010023ISI: 000513801000023Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85079058476OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-77357DiVA, id: diva2:1384883
Projekt
U4IoT
Anmärkning

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-01-15 (svasva)

Tillgänglig från: 2020-01-12 Skapad: 2020-01-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-10-15Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. User engagement in Living Labs: Issues and concerns
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>User engagement in Living Labs: Issues and concerns
2020 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

User engagement and the participatory design approach are well-established in information systems research for many years, and several studies have investigated the challenges of user engagement in the innovation processes. The majority of these studies have discussed participatory design activities – specifically user engagement –in an organizational context. From this perspective, user engagement within an organization employs (relatively) mature technology, but the users are exclusively employees with certain levels of expertise and commitment. Therefore, the full spectrum of users’ perspectives is widely neglected. Accordingly, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate and discuss how the process of voluntary user engagement in real-life contexts (in this study, living labs) is shaped when the innovations are not yet mature. The objective is to propose a framework that addresses issues of sustainable user engagement and commitment by including the users’ perspectives.  To this end, the following research questions are further explored:

RQ1: What aspects of innovation have an impact on the process of user engagement?

RQ2: What aspects of the engagement context have an impact on the process of user engagement?

RQ3: What aspects related to the users themselves have an impact on the process of user engagement?

In order to meet the purpose of this study, the living lab was used as the context of participatory design activities in three different studied cases. The first living lab case was called “USEMP” and concerned testing and evaluation of a digital innovation with voluntary users. The second living lab case, “UNaLab”, incorporated ten European cities, aiming to develop nature-based solutions to problems in these cities following a living lab approach. The third living lab case, “U4IoT”, was designed to facilitate the engagement of five European Large-Scale Pilots with (current and future) users throughout the use and adoption of the Internet of things (IoT).

This thesis is based on a qualitative interpretive case study approach. Beyond conducting two rounds of literature review, this research used multiple data collection methods within the context of the studied living lab cases. These included two rounds of semi-structured interviews with the living lab and innovation experts (24 interviews), four international workshops with 62 participants, and two rounds of open-ended questionnaires with 41 participants. A high-level analysis of the results from the three cases was also conducted through qualitative data coding, in which the results of all appended papers were reinterpreted, reorganized, synthesized and presented.

This study contributes to the research on participatory design in the information systems research field by focusing on voluntary user engagement in living labs when the innovation is not yet mature. In so doing, this dissertation provides the Plan–Act–Reflect user engagement framework, which investigates the issues of user engagement and incorporates the perspectives of both users and innovation and living lab experts. The analysis of the results illustrated that user engagement in the living lab context is not a linear process with pre-determined entry and exit points. Instead, it is an iterative process characterized by complex interplay between different engagement phases, including cognitive engagement (plan), realize engagement (act), and engagement commitment (reflect). The results of this study could help participatory design practitioners, living lab organizers, project planners and decision makers on a larger scale – such as that of urban living labs – to understand not only how to engage users in the innovation processes but also how to keep them engaged. This may be accomplished through every part of the process, from user preparation to implementation to testing and adoption of innovations.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2020
Serie
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Nyckelord
participatory design, user engagement, user engagement framework, user perspective, commitment, living lab, innovation, test, adoption
Nationell ämneskategori
Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik med samhällsvetenskaplig inriktning
Forskningsämne
Informationssystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-80563 (URN)978-91-7790-638-4 (ISBN)978-91-7790-639-1 (ISBN)
Disputation
2020-10-21, A3024, Luleå university of technology, Luleå, 13:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2020-08-26 Skapad: 2020-08-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-09-18Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Data-driven Innovation: An exploration of outcomes and processes within federated networks
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Data-driven Innovation: An exploration of outcomes and processes within federated networks
2020 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The emergence and pervasiveness of digital technologies are changing many aspects of our lives, including what and how we innovate. Industries and societies are competing to embrace this wave of digitalization by developing the right infrastructures and ecosystems for innovation. Similarly, innovation managers and entrepreneurs are using digital technologies to develop novel products, services, processes, business models, etc. One of the major consequences of digitalization is the massive amounts of machine-readable data generated through digital interactions. But this is not only a consequence, it is also a driver for other innovations to emerge. Employing analytical techniques on data to extract useful patterns and insights enables different aspects of innovation. During the last decade, scholars within digital innovation have started to explore this relationship between analytics and innovation, a phenomenon referred to as data-driven innovation (DDI). Most theories to date view analytics as variable that affects innovation in performative terms and treats it as a black-box. However, if the innovation managers and entrepreneurs are to manage and navigate DDI, and for the investors, funders and policymakers to take informed decisions, they need a better understanding of how DDI outcomes (i.e. market offerings such as products and services) are shaped and how they emerge from a process perspective.

This dissertation explores this research gap by addressing two research questions: “What characterizes data-driven innovation outcomes?” and “How do data-driven innovations emerge in federated networks?” A federated network is a type of – increasingly common – contemporary innovation structure that is also enabled by digital technology. The dissertation is based on a compilation of five articles addressing these questions. The overall research approach follows a multiple case study design and the empirical investigation takes place in two case sites corresponding to two EU-funded projects.

As a result, a classification taxonomy is developed for data-driven digital services. This taxonomy contributes to the conceptualization of DDI outcomes grounded on static and dynamic characteristics. In addition, a DDI process framework is proposed that highlights the importance of exploration, the temporal relationship between data acquisition and innovation development, and the various factors that influence the process along with examples of their contextual manifestations. Finally, social and cognitive interactions within federated networks of DDI are explored to reveal that the innovation teams rely on data-driven representations to facilitate various stakeholders’ engagement and contribution throughout the process. These representations eventually stabilize into boundary objects that retain the factual integrity of the data and analytical models but are also flexible for contextual interpretation and use. These findings contribute to the current discourse within digital innovation by introducing the lens of data analytics to conceptualize a specific type of digital artifacts, and well as providing a rich descriptive account of an extended digital innovation process. They also contribute to the discourse on data-driven innovation by providing an empirical account of DDI from a process viewpoint.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2020
Serie
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Nyckelord
Data-driven innovation, analytics, innovation process, federated networks, data science, taxonomy
Nationell ämneskategori
Systemvetenskap, informationssystem och informatik
Forskningsämne
Informationssystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-81143 (URN)978-91-7790-681-0 (ISBN)978-91-7790-682-7 (ISBN)
Disputation
2020-12-02, A3024, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2020-10-15 Skapad: 2020-10-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-11-03Bibliografiskt granskad

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