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Evolution of structures and hydrothermal alteration in a Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal belt: Constraining paired deformation–fluid flow events in an Fe and Cu–Au prospective terrain in northern Sweden
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8682-8180
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1627-7058
Department of Mineral Resources, Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
2020 (English)In: Solid Earth, ISSN 1869-9510, E-ISSN 1869-9529, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 547-578Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An approximately 90 km long Palaeoproterozoic supracrustal belt in the northwestern Norrbotten ore province (northernmost Sweden) was investigated to characterize its structural components, assess hydrothermal alteration–structural geology correlations, and constrain a paired deformation–fluid flow evolution for the belt. New geological mapping of five key areas (Eustiljåkk, Ekströmsberg, Tjårrojåkka, Kaitum West, and Fjällåsen–Allavaara) indicates two major compressional events (D1 and D2) have affected the belt, with each associated with hydrothermal alteration types typical for iron oxide–apatite and iron oxide Cu–Au systems in the region. Early D1 generated a regionally distributed, penetrative S1 foliation and oblique reverse shear zones that show a southwest-block-up sense of shear that formed in response to NE–SW crustal shortening. Peak regional metamorphism at epidote–amphibolite facies broadly overlaps with this D1 event. Based on overprinting relationships, D1 is associated with regional scapolite ± albite, magnetite + amphibole, and late calcite alteration of mafic rock types. These hydrothermal mineral associations linked to D1 structures may form part of a regionally pervasive evolving fluid flow event but are separated in this study by crosscutting relationships.

During D2 deformation, folding of S0–S1 structures generated F2 folds with steeply plunging fold axes in low-strain areas. NNW-trending D1 shear zones experienced reverse dip-slip reactivation and strike-slip-dominated movements along steep, E–W-trending D2 shear zones, producing brittle-plastic structures. Hydrothermal alteration linked to D2 structures is a predominantly potassic–ferroan association comprising K-feldspar ± epidote ± quartz ± biotite ± magnetite ± sericite ± sulfides. Locally, syn- or post-tectonic calcite is the main alteration mineral in D2 shear zones that intersect mafic rocks. Our results highlight the importance of combining structural geology with the study of hydrothermal alterations at regional to belt scales to understand the temporal–spatial relationship between mineralized systems. Based on the mapping results and microstructural investigations as well as a review of earlier tectonic models presented for adjacent areas, we suggest a new structural model for this part of the northern Fennoscandian Shield. The new model emphasizes the importance of reactivation of early structures, and the model harmonizes with tectonic models presented by earlier workers based mainly on petrology of the northern Norrbotten area.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copernicus publications , 2020. Vol. 11, no 2, p. 547-578
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-78783DOI: 10.5194/se-11-547-2020ISI: 000527805400001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85083756752OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-78783DiVA, id: diva2:1428331
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-05-05 (johcin)

Available from: 2020-05-05 Created: 2020-05-05 Last updated: 2023-09-04Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Paleoproterozoic deformation in the Kiruna‑Gällivare area in northern Norrbotten, Sweden: Setting, character, age, and control of iron oxide-apatite deposits
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Paleoproterozoic deformation in the Kiruna‑Gällivare area in northern Norrbotten, Sweden: Setting, character, age, and control of iron oxide-apatite deposits
2021 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis covers the structural evolution of the Kiruna‑Gällivare area in the northern Norrbotten ore province, Sweden. The study area hosts several economically significant iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits and includes the type locality for this ore type. Despite the abundant work on the genesis of IOA-systems, their structural setting and control is poorly constrained. This highlights the need for multi-scale structural studies that can help to unravel structural controls on the genesis and overprinting deformation histories. Four IOA-hosting key study areas were under investigation covering multi-scale structural controls from regional to deposit scale. Extensive geological mapping focused on structures, stratigraphy, and hydrothermal alteration, combined with multi-scale structural analysis and U-Pb geochronology was conducted. Results are synthesized in a time-constrained tectonothermal model for IOA deposits and host rocks of the Kiruna‑Gällivare area.

The results indicate that the IOA deposits in Norrbotten formed in an overall extensional regime coeval with basin development in a backarc setting. The onset of basin development is indicated by a U-Pb age in zircon from a volcanic intercalation in a stratigraphically basal alluvial conglomerate of the ore-bearing sequence. A titanite age indicates that an ore-proximal cataclastic fault has syn-volcanic origin and formed coeval with basin development and ore formation. A similar origin is postulated for ore-proximal biotite-bearing structures at the Malmberget IOA deposit. In comparison with Kiruna, the Malmberget area experienced higher metamorphic conditions and records a more complex deformation history. 

Following backarc extension, subsequent crustal shortening resulted in basin inversion and re-activation of structures. Crustal scale, reverse shear zones developed in favourable lithologies and inferred pre-existing structures during D1. The timing of D1 crustal shortening coincides with peak metamorphism (M1) and is bracketed by crosscutting relationships. In contrast, the timing of an overprinting D2 crustal shortening is directly constrained by U-Pb geochronology in titanite indicating an age of approx. 1.8 Ga during an event tentatively interpreted to have lasted up to 20 m.y. This time span is coeval with the exhumation of the Kiruna mining district as recorded by an U‑Pb reset age in apatite in association to an IOA deposit. The D2 deformation is characterized by reactivation of older structures and responsible for juxtaposition of blocks from different crustal levels and tectonic exhumation into upper crustal domains. Transposition of fabrics and ore bodies into re-activated listric faults during basin inversion explains sub-parallel relationships between the ore-proximal structures, bedding, and stratiform/stratabound orebodies.

Sodic-calcic + Fe ± Cl alteration is widespread and generally sits in early structural positions and interpreted as pre‑ to syn‑D1. However, U-Pb titanite results indicate that sodic-calcic alteration was developed also during the younger D2 event and shows that the alteration style is temporally and spatially widely distributed. Commonly, the alteration styles associated with D2 deformation are potassic in character and associated to Fe- and Cu-sulphide minerals. These potassic alteration assemblages sit in structurally late positions, often brittle in character. Sulphides were remobilized into D2-structures and the entrapment style is mainly controlled by rock competency.

A least two additional overprinting deformation phases are identified (D3 and D4). Clockwise rotation of the overall crustal shortening direction resulted in a gentle refolding of the inverted basin and influences the shape of some IOA deposits in the Kiruna mining district. Dominant joint structures at the Malmberget IOA deposit are indicated as relatively early features and their development is controlled by pre-existing foliation and crosscut by hydrothermally altered structures, that may be coeval with hydraulic fracturing in the Kiruna mining district that crosscut all other fabrics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2021. p. 37
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Keywords
Kiruna, Gällivare, structural geology, Paleoproterozoic, deformation
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Ore Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-87741 (URN)978-91-7790-973-6 (ISBN)978-91-7790-974-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2021-12-17, E632, Luleå, 08:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-11-04 Created: 2021-11-03 Last updated: 2023-09-05Bibliographically approved

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