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A Review of the Mechanical Properties and Durability of Ecological Concretes in a Cold Climate in Comparison to Standard Ordinary Portland Cement-Based Concrete
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-5136-9412
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7279-6528
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering. Skanska Teknik AB, Skanska Sverige AB, 40518 Göteborg, Sweden.
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Structural and Fire Engineering.ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6287-2240
2020 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 16, article id 3467Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Most of the currently used concretes are based on ordinary Portland cement (OPC) which results in a high carbon dioxide footprint and thus has a negative environmental impact. Replacing OPCs, partially or fully by ecological binders, i.e., supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) or alternative binders, aims to decrease the carbon dioxide footprint. Both solutions introduced a number of technological problems, including their performance, when exposed to low, subfreezing temperatures during casting operations and the hardening stage. This review indicates that the present knowledge enables the production of OPC-based concretes at temperatures as low as −10 °C, without the need of any additional measures such as, e.g., heating. Conversely, composite cements containing SCMs or alkali-activated binders (AACs) showed mixed performances, ranging from inferior to superior in comparison with OPC. Most concretes based on composite cements require pre/post heat curing or only a short exposure to sub-zero temperatures. At the same time, certain alkali-activated systems performed very well even at −20 °C without the need for additional curing. Chemical admixtures developed for OPC do not always perform well in other binder systems. This review showed that there is only a limited knowledge on how chemical admixtures work in ecological concretes at low temperatures and how to accelerate the hydration rate of composite cements containing high amounts of SCMs or AACs, when these are cured at subfreezing temperatures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI, 2020. Vol. 13, no 16, article id 3467
Keywords [en]
ordinary Portland cement (OPC), supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), alkali-activated concrete (AAC), chemical admixtures, sustainable concrete, mechanical properties, frost durability
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-80353DOI: 10.3390/ma13163467ISI: 000564883200001PubMedID: 32781636Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85090027318OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-80353DiVA, id: diva2:1457273
Funder
Interreg Nord, NYPS 20201459Norrbotten County Council
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 2;2020-08-17 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-08-11 Created: 2020-08-11 Last updated: 2024-04-16Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Low Portland cement content concretes at freezing and subfreezing temperatures
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low Portland cement content concretes at freezing and subfreezing temperatures
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Concrete is the most used building material. With the increasing growth of industries and urbanization globally; the demand for concrete is increasing significantly. Ordinary Portland Cement (PC) is the binder used to produce typical concrete. Unfortunately, for every ton of manufactured cement about 0.61-ton CO2 is emitted into the earth’s atmosphere. As a result, several solutions have been implemented to reduce the usage of this material in the production of concrete. This includes its partial or full replacement with supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) or alternative binders. Some of these combinations could be problematic to be used in cold climates due to a lower developed hydration heat, slower setting, or worse frost durability.

In winter the immediate exposure of fresh concrete to freezing temperatures results in pore ice formation and could delay or completely stop the hydration process. This is commonly prevented by using an additional heating system installed in concrete or the formwork. Unfortunately, usually, it adds complexity, increases the price, and depending on the used power source, could increase the CO2 footprint. Another potentially simpler and more sustainable solution is to modify the concrete itself by adjusting the mix design, by using certain chemical admixtures and special cementitious binders.

This research aimed to better understand how partial replacement of Portland cement with GGBFS and/or CSA cement affects the properties of concretes exposed to freezing and subfreezing temperatures in a fresh state and at a young age. The secondary aim was to evaluate a possible application of UHPC to protect new and existing concrete structures from frost damage.

The research included a literature review of methods used to produce concrete structures at zero and subzero temperatures. A special emphasis was on the application of chemical and mineral admixtures that could eliminate the need to use heat treatments. The output of this analysis enabled to narrow the scope of the research.

The experimental program focused on the optimization, testing, and analysis of mixes containing various combinations of chemical admixtures, CSA cement, and Portland cement. Tests included exposure to freezing and subfreezing temperatures. The aim was to lower the freezing point of water and promote faster hydration and strength gain. Fresh and hardened properties were determined for all produced concretes. The phase transition of pore water into ice, the ice-forming temperature, and their effects on the binder matrix were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Other tests included ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements (UPV), bond test (pull-off), scanning electron microscope (SEM) for analysis of the microstructure and phase composition, frost durability evaluation with Båras test, semi-adiabatic calorimetry to study hydration processes, compressive strength measurements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2024
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Building Technologies Composite Science and Engineering
Research subject
Building Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105133 (URN)978-91-8048-540-1 (ISBN)978-91-8048-541-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-06-18, F1031, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
InterregVinnovaSvenska Byggbranschens Utvecklingsfond (SBUF)Swedish Transport AdministrationSwedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2024-04-17 Created: 2024-04-16 Last updated: 2024-05-28Bibliographically approved

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Kothari, AnkitHabermehl-Cwirzen, KarinHedlund, HansCwirzen, Andrzej

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