Change search
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
A Survey of Secure Internet of Things in Relation to Blockchain
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1281-6130
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0244-3561
Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Computer Science.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4031-2872
2020 (English)In: Journal of Internet Services and Information Security (JISIS), ISSN 2182-2069, E-ISSN 2182-2077, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 47-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Distributed ledgers and blockchain technologies can improve system security and trustworthiness by providing immutable replicated histories of data. Blockchain is a linked list of blocks containing digitally signed transactions, a cryptographic hash of the previous block, and a timestamp stored in a decentralized and distributed network. The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the application domains in which security based on blockchain is discussed. In this article, we review the structure and architectures of distributed IoT systems and explain the motivations, challenges, and needs of blockchain to secure such systems. However, there are substantial threats and attacks to blockchain that must be understood, as well as suitable approaches to mitigate them. We, therefore, survey the most common attacks to blockchain systems and the solutions to mitigate them, with the objective of assessing how malicious these attacks are in the IoT context.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Seoul, ​Republic of Korea: Innovative Information Science & Technology Research Group (ISYOU) , 2020. Vol. 10, no 3, p. 47-75
Keywords [en]
Distributed Systems, Blockchain, Internet of Things, IoT Architectures, Security, Attacks
National Category
Computer Sciences Media and Communication Technology
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing; Cyber-Physical Systems
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-80402DOI: 10.22667/JISIS.2020.08.31.047Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85090788479OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-80402DiVA, id: diva2:1457999
Projects
DIT4BEARS: Disruptive IT for Barents Euro-Arctic RegionsBlockchains for raw materials traceability: Dynamic identities in refinement-based value chains
Note

Validerad;2020;Nivå 1;2020-09-14 (alebob)

Available from: 2020-08-13 Created: 2020-08-13 Last updated: 2024-05-15Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Blockchain and Distributed Hash Table Technology in Decentralized Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Blockchain and Distributed Hash Table Technology in Decentralized Systems
2021 (English)Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the popular domains in real-time analytics, ma-chine learning, ubiquitous computing, commodity sensors, and embedded systems where remote smart devices play notable roles in smart homes and industry. The information from emerging IoT environments like remotely-controlled objects, autonomous vehicles (AVs), and energy management can produce a huge amount of data. Moreover, under-standing the security in a scalable decentralized IoT environment is a significant issue.Decentralization has become popular again in the world since cryptocurrencies started to be a part of businesses. Therefore, researchers invested in upgrading resources to increase the reliability of these systems among people when most of the activities and human works are now managed by smart electronic devices remotely. Distributed ledgers, Distributed Hash Tables (DHTs), and blockchain technologies are proper decentralized technologies that improve system security, scalability, and trustworthiness. Blockchains contain a group of connected blocks that are digitally signed transactions stored in a decentralized fashion. The DHT technology is another decentralized solution that helps applications keep files and information immutable in a decentralized manner to mitigate the high cost of storage without memory limitations.In this thesis, we argue for a decentralized systems paradigm and, in conjunction with IoT and the blockchain. Our contributions are as follows. First, we introduce the term networks and service architectures and how it is possible to use blockchain in the real world. We consider different architectures in IoT systems and show the blockchain en-counter with the IoT and the resulting behavior. Second, we detect most of the frequent types of attacks in IoT related to using blockchain in the systems. We also describe how the blockchain works and illustrate a variety of security problems in systems. Fur-thermore, we discuss how the blockchain solves security problems by comparing different blockchains and explain how users handle their communication without third-party de-pendence. As our third contribution, we propose a novel architecture that consists of finding global identification in distributed applications and enable decentralized systems to be more secure with the help of blockchain technology. We also validate the proposed architecture and novel decentralized application development to evaluate high efficiency by combining blockchain, DHT, and biometric technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå University of Technology, 2021
Series
Licentiate thesis / Luleå University of Technology, ISSN 1402-1757
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-86795 (URN)978-91-7790-909-5 (ISBN)978-91-7790-910-1 (ISBN)
Presentation
2021-10-22, A193, Skellefteå, 14:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2021-08-25 Created: 2021-08-23 Last updated: 2021-10-01Bibliographically approved
2. Architectural Aspects of Identification in Decentralized Systems
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Architectural Aspects of Identification in Decentralized Systems
2024 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

High-level systems need identification techniques, where higher security and scalability are considered requirements. Identification plays a significant role in systems where smart electronic devices increase in zero trust and open environments like decentralized systems. Also, decentralization has emerged as one of the most exciting domains in recent years, again after the first Internet was invented. Besides, decentralization in identification systems has gained popularity worldwide since cryptocurrencies became part of businesses. Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) and Distributed Hash Tables (DHT) can be appropriate decentralized solutions that improve identification to be much more secure, scalable, and trustworthy.

The decentralized nature of DLT and DHT ensures no single point of failure, making them highly resilient to attacks. Blockchain as a DLT solution can help devices communicate with each other securely and trustably by storing an immutable history of transactions, providing an additional layer of security to identification systems. DHT senable applications to keep files and information immutable in a decentralized manner. DHTs ensure that the data is replicated across multiple nodes, making it highly resilient to data loss. Moreover, mitigating high storage costs without memory limitations is the target of these technologies. In this context, a decentralized system paradigm that combines systems with DLT and DHTs can be highly beneficial.

This thesis argues for such a paradigm, and the contributions include introducing the term decentralized networks and architectures and demonstrating the feasibility of using blockchain as a DLT solution in real-world scenarios. These scenarios can be applied to the Internet of Things (IoT) or other Peer to Peer networked systems. We explore different architectures in various systems and analyze the interaction in blockchain. This thesis contributes to developing decentralized identification systems that provide users’ trust in an open environment. It presents the challenges associated with decentralized identification, including registry and storage issues, and proposes solutions using DLT and DHT. The immutability of DLT and DHTs provides fast and secure solutions for decentralized identification systems. In particular, we show that a DHT-based architecture is feasible to maintain decentralization while avoiding memory constraints. However, there is still room for improvement in terms of performance. Our investigation shows that combining DHTs with blockchain in decentralized identifiers improves performance.

By concealing blocks in the private blockchain, we show that query performance is better than other DHT and public blockchain-based solutions without concealed information. Moreover, our results show that DHT performs better than the public blockchain for scenarios with many records.

These findings highlight the importance of selecting the appropriate technology for decentralized identification systems, considering the specific use case and the number of records to be stored.

We also consider different decentralized identification systems and platforms built based on the recommendation of W3C Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs). We found low-efficiency issues using this technology, resulting from leveraging public DLT in the data registry part of DIDs. That model has searching time problems if the DLT grows. Finally, this thesis helps to analyze these issues and find better solutions. By choosing the right technology, we can ensure that decentralized identifiers are efficient, secure, and scalable, which enables users to trust them in an open environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2024
Series
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
National Category
Computer Sciences
Research subject
Pervasive Mobile Computing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-105460 (URN)978-91-8048-579-1 (ISBN)978-91-8048-580-7 (ISBN)
Public defence
2024-08-30, A 193, Luleå University of Technology, Skellefteå, 08:30 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2024-05-14 Created: 2024-05-14 Last updated: 2024-06-03Bibliographically approved

Open Access in DiVA

fulltext(772 kB)588 downloads
File information
File name FULLTEXT01.pdfFile size 772 kBChecksum SHA-512
ba19be0eab732349926532e1092a4854de984328cfbe443ec8a7a284b89a8bc4b946e5e7e8b2e7d756379329d6eaf9d2bcfff78aa6ca92a26c8f1ff31eb52ce8
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf

Other links

Publisher's full textScopus

Authority records

Alizadeh, MortezaAndersson, KarlSchelén, Olov

Search in DiVA

By author/editor
Alizadeh, MortezaAndersson, KarlSchelén, Olov
By organisation
Computer Science
In the same journal
Journal of Internet Services and Information Security (JISIS)
Computer SciencesMedia and Communication Technology

Search outside of DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Total: 588 downloads
The number of downloads is the sum of all downloads of full texts. It may include eg previous versions that are now no longer available

doi
urn-nbn

Altmetric score

doi
urn-nbn
Total: 2622 hits
CiteExportLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf