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From mine to part: Directed energy deposition of iron ore
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-7213-0002
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling. Fraunhofer-Institut fur Werkstoff und Strahltechnik, Dresden, Germany.
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-3569-6795
2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: Rapid prototyping journal, ISSN 1355-2546, E-ISSN 1758-7670, Vol. 27, nr 11, s. 37-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose - This paper aims to gain an understanding of the behaviour of iron ore when melted by a laser beam in a continuous manner. This fundamental knowledge is essential to further develop additive manufacturing routes such as production of low cost parts and in-situ reduction of the ore during processing.

Design/methodology/approach - Blown powder directed energy deposition was used as the processing method. The process was observed through high-speed imaging, and computed tomography was used to analyse the specimens.

Findings - The experimental trials give preliminary results showing potential for the processability of iron ore for additive manufacturing. A large and stable melt pool is formed in spite of the inhomogeneous material used. Single and multilayer tracks could be deposited. Although smooth and even on the surface, the single layer tracks displayed porosity. In case of multilayered tracks, delamination from the substrate material and deformation can be seen. High-speed videos of the process reveal various process phenomena such as melting of ore powder during feeding, cloud formation, melt pool size, melt flow and spatter formation.

Originality/value - Very little literature is available that studies the possible use of ore in additive manufacturing. Although the process studied here is not industrially useable as is, it is a step towards processing cheap unprocessed material with a laser beam.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2021. Vol. 27, nr 11, s. 37-42
Nyckelord [en]
Additive manufacturing, Additive manufacturing, Laser cladding, Crushed iron ore, High-speed imaging, Laser metal deposition
Nationell ämneskategori
Bearbetnings-, yt- och fogningsteknik
Forskningsämne
Produktionsutveckling
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83611DOI: 10.1108/RPJ-10-2020-0243ISI: 000691456900001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85113835505OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-83611DiVA, id: diva2:1543824
Forskningsfinansiär
Interreg Nord, 304-10694-2017, 304-7463-2018
Anmärkning

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-09-08 (alebob);

Har tidigare förekommit som manuskript i avhandling.

Tillgänglig från: 2021-04-13 Skapad: 2021-04-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2021-09-08Bibliografiskt granskad
Ingår i avhandling
1. Phenomena in laser based material deposition
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Phenomena in laser based material deposition
2021 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Alternativ titel[sv]
Fenomen i laserbaserad materialdeponering
Abstract [en]

This thesis is regarding the use of a laser beam to deposit material. Phenomena in two processes, laser beam welding with filler wire and blown powder directed energy deposition (DED) also known as laser metal deposition (LMD)1, are discussed. High-speed imaging is used as a central tool, supported by cross-sectional macrographs, surface images, X-ray images, computed tomography scans and quantitative analysis of the acquired results to observe many phenomena. Several results generated could be used in the manufacturing industry.

A novel concept of feeding the filler wire off-axis to the joint in laser beam welding is presented. The formation of defects called undercuts depended mainly on the stability of the wire feed and irregular melting of its tip. Process parameters played a key role in the robustness of the process, with higher welding speeds and laser powers increasing the chance for formation of defects.

Powder catchment in DED, and the various influencing factors are discussed. The position of initial interaction between powder grains and the melt pool plays an important role in defining incorporation behaviour. Powder grains can float on the surface of melt pool and travel along the direction of surface tension driven melt flows before fully incorporating. In high-deposition rate DED, an island of unmelted powder can form in the melt pool, depending on the laser beam shape and powder feeding configuration used. This island could lead to formation of spatter from the melt pool and porosity in resulting clads. Solid oxide skins present on the melt pool in low temperature areas can act like a barrier preventing complete incorporation of powder grains or possibly causing localised boiling, forming spatter.

For the first time, near-unprocessed material was used as feedstock in the DED process. A single large melt pool is formed in the relatively calm process, and phenomena like cloud formation while feeding of material and spatter were observed. Single and multi-layered deposition resulted in porous tracks and delamination from the substrate. While the process is not industrially useable in its current state, it is a step towards processing cheap unprocessed material with a laser beam to manufacture low cost parts or for in-situ reduction. 

The roles of material composition and surface conditions of the substrate in DED are also presented. Both, the composition and surface condition affect the absorption of the laser radiation. Material composition influences the time taken for incorporation of powder grains. The size of the melt pool and dilution depends on the thermal conductivity of the substrate material. Surfaces that are rough or coated with (several sorts of) paint produce wider tracks, with better wetting angles as compared to milled or ground surfaces. Coatings like paints or cold-galvanising primers do not negatively affect the process. Deposition directly on rough or painted surfaces could significantly reduce processing time and the resources needed for cleaning before cladding or repair processes. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Luleå University of Technology, 2021
Serie
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Nationell ämneskategori
Bearbetnings-, yt- och fogningsteknik
Forskningsämne
Produktionsutveckling
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-83613 (URN)978-91-7790-819-7 (ISBN)978-91-7790-820-3 (ISBN)
Disputation
2021-06-10, A109, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 09:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2021-04-14 Skapad: 2021-04-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2021-11-12Bibliografiskt granskad

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Naesstroem, HimaniBrueckner, FrankKaplan, Alexander F.H.

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